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S

 

Sâdhaka: denomination for all entertaining a spiritual discipline (s â d h a n a) in de y o g a.

- Set apart from b h a k t a as a preceding concept.

Sâdhana-bhakti: devotion of beginners getting disciplined under guidance.

- Devotion which with s â d h a n a, spiritual discipline, delivers service (see also r â g â n u g a- and v a i d h i - b h a k t i).

- There are two kinds: contaminated and free from material motives: v i d d h a and p a r â - b h a k t i.

Sâdhu: (straight) enerring, obedient straightened, a saint, a holy man, a devotee, a seeker of truth.

- He who in full surrender to K r i s h n a gives evidence of the greatest wisdom and holiness (see also s' a n t a).

Sâdhyas: (literally: the ones subdued, mastered, or won; to be (being) contrived or managed; to be accomplished or fulfilled, proved or demonstrated; conquerable, practicable, feasible, curable, attainable) as a term used for the type of demigods that are worshiped for commercial success (see 2.3: 2-7) or the allegiance of subjects in case of a king.

Sâkhya: one of the five direct or primary r a s a's or manifestations of love standing out as the main r a s a's: the fraternal or friendly (see also b h â g a v a t a - d h a r m a).

Sâlva (S'âlva): the demoniac member of the family that siding with S' i s' u p â l a fought with P r a d y u m n a, but because of his great power and magic was killed by K r i s h n a. He was reported to go to war with a flying fortress called Saubha (see 10:76-77).

Sâma means "pacifying." V a s u d e v a wanted to pacify K a m s a by indicating relations, gain, welfare, identity and glorification. Reference to these five concerns constitutes sâma, and V a s u d e v a 's presentation of fear in two situations: in this life and the next: is called bheda (addendum Prabhupâda canto 10.1).

Sâma-Veda: one of the four original V e d a's. The Sâma-Veda consists of the musical compositions of the hymns.

Sâmba: 'with the mother': son of K r i s h n a and one of his eight principal wives Jambavatî. He stole away the daughter of D u r y o d h a n a, was captured by the K a u r a v a's, which then led to a campaign of B a l a r â m a cursing the dynasty and dragging Hastinâpura into the Ganges (see 10.68). Sâmba was the one Y a d u who once as a boy had challenged the learned ones playing he was a pregnant woman, which then led to the curse that destroyed the Y a d u - d y n a s t y in the end, K r i s h n a 's last mission to remove the burden from the earth (see 11.1).

Sâmvartaka: the fire at the end of time.

Sânkhya: analytic knowledge; philosophocal analysis of the material and the spiritual and the controller of both.

- Theïstically to the a v a t â r a K a p i l a (see S.B 3: ch25) a system of philosophy entailing the analytic study of the soul as distinguished from the twenty-four elements of material nature.

- Atheistically to the philosopher of the same name a system of material analysis of the world of appearances in all her different manifestations.

- School of y o g a-philosophy to which one reckons P a t a ñ j a l i (see also V i d h y a, Y o g a and A s h t h â n g a).

Sânkhya-yoga: thorough study of the spiritual ego as differing from the physical body. This way is the living soul brought to b h a k t i - y o g a, in which it can enter the spiritual activities, which are his authentic action.

Sârî: long seamless colorful cloth used by the female devotee to dress herself.

- Traditional indian vesture, wrapped cloth, for woman.

Sâstra: see s' â s t r a.

Sâs'vata (S'âs'vata): durability, quality of the soul (used in B.G. 1.42, 2.20).

Sâtvata: (of Satvata, the one to the absolute truth, a name of K r i s h n a) another name for devotee, servant of the Absolute Truth (s a t).

- Specifically the ones devoted to K r i s h n a ; the Y a d u s and the V a i s h n a v a s.

Sâtyaki: the son of Satyaka see 9.24: 14, who also, next to Dâruka (zie 10.53: 5), served as K r i s h n a's charioteer; is also called Yuyudhâna (zie 3.1: 31).

Sâyujya: impersonal liberation in which one dissolves in the b r a h m a j y o t i.

Sabda (s'abdha): sound (known as K r i s h n a).

- A process of sacrificing sound in the controlled mind.

- Kind of p r a m â n a, or a certain truth of evidence.

- An 'object' of the senses (see v i s h a y a).

Sabda khe (s'abdha khe): K r i s h n a's expression 'I am the sound in the ether' (see B.G. 7: 7).

- Also called âkâs'a nâda in 12.6: 37 (see also d i v i y a m s' r o t a m).

- Hearing the sounds of all living beings in the ether belongs to the secondary siddhi dûra s'ravana ('remote hearing') mentioned in 11.15: 19.

Sabda-brahman (s'abda-brahman): the oral tradition, culture of precept and ritual giving access to K r i s h n a -consciousness (s'âbhda-brahman: the V e d a).

- The spiritual sound manifesting itself in the vital breath, the senses and the mind (11.21: 36, and 11.15: 19). Mystically in selfrealization and socially in the tradition of the personal conveyance of the knowledge.

- S' r î l a  V i s ' v a n â t h a  C a k r a v a r t î  T h h â k u r a explains the divisions of s'abdha as follows.

- The prâna phase of Vedic sound, known as parâ, is situated in the âdhâra-cakra;
- the mental phase, known as pas'yantî, is situated in the area of the navel, on the manipûraka-cakra;
- the intellectual phase, known as madhyamâ, is situated in the heart area, in the anâhata-cakra.
- Finally, the manifest sensory phase of Vedic sound is called vaikharî (see also
c a k r a).

Sac-cid-ânanda: see s a t - c i t- â n a n d a.

Sagara: ('with poison') renown king called that way because of an offense committed by his parents relating to sage Aurva. On the word of Aurva, in y o g a with the Supersoul of all vedic knowledge and the enlightened souls, was he with horse-sacrifices of worship with the Lord. His sons were responsible for the place called Gangâsâgara. It was he who gave people of a dubious nature some standing. A certain day was the horse used in the worship, by I n d r a stolen. The proud sons born from Sumati, a wife of Sagara, turned, ordered by their father, the earth up side down in search of the horse, which they found back in the as'râma of sage K a p i l a who burnt them with his fiery look to ashes as they aggressively approached him. To wash away their sins was the G a n g e s brought down after ages of renunciation (see also 9.8 & 9.9).

Saguna: (literally: endowed with qualities): relates to K r i s h n a, the Absolute Truth, in the sense that he has qualities that are completely transcendental (see n i r g u n a en b r a h m a n).

Sahadeva: One of A r j u n a's younger brothers. Twin brother of N a k u l a (see P â n d a v a's).

Sahajiyâ: incorrect imitation of the love of the g o p i's; fake- b h a k t i.

Sakti-(S'akti)-avesha-avatâra: an incarnation of K r i s h n a as partial incarnation (Jesus Christ e.g.).

Sakti (S'akti): strength, energy, power, might, ability, effort, capability. Feminine aspect in relation to material activities. In three kinds (see also E n e r g y and further under P o t e n c i e s):

- Tatastha-, divine energy.

- Antaranga, lower material energy.

- Bahiranga-s'akti, the energy in between of the living souls.

- The energy or active power of a deity personified as his wife and worshipped under various names depending on the godhead of concern.

Salva (S'âlva): the demoniac member of the family that siding with S' i s' u p â l a fought with P r a d y u m n a, but because of his great power and magic was killed by K r i s h n a. He was reported to go to war with a flying fortress called Saubha (see 10:76-77).

Samâdhi: spiritual absorption, K r i s h n a, perfect state of spiritual enrapture through a full commitment in devotional service.

- Final phase of a s h t h â n g a - y o g a, the eightfold path.

- Selfrealization (see also a s a m p r a j ñ a t a-, d h a r m a m e g h a- and s a m p r a j ñ a t a-).

- P a t a ñ j a l i describes in his yoga - sûtra the different forms of s a m â d h i as being with and without 'seed' (sabija and nirbijasamâdhi, P r a b h u p â d a: life and lifeless y o g a S.B. 3.28:34). Seed means more that just the biology, it also implies having thoughts, discrimination, relating to objects: to control the mind about the lifeless of an object. Without seed would be without the object (and without thoughts).

Samâna-vâyu: the inner physical pressure which serves the balancing. It is one of the five types of air controlled by the technique of breathing in a s h t h â n g a -y o g a. (see v â y u)

Samatvam: to be balanced, equanimity.

S'ambhu: name of lord S' i v a as the beneficient one.

Samhitâ (joined, attached, fixed, composed, put together): a collection of stories, a bible; the B h â g a v a t a m is also called the paramahamsa samhitâ, the collection of stories about the supreme person, the p a r a m a h a m s a that is the Lord.

Samprajnata-samâdhi: deliberate absorption with discrimination or 'seed'-thoughts (s a b i j a versus n i r b i j a).

Sampradâya: organization of v a i s h n a v a's consisting of different schools or m a t h's. For ISKCON: the Brahmâ-Madhvâ-Gaudîya- sampradâya; the bengal branch of the Brahmâ- sampradâya. there are four main - sampradâya's: the Brahmâ-, S'rî-, Rudra and Kumâra- sampradâya who all worship Lord V i s h n u. (active as the: Ramanuja-sampradâya, the Madhvâ-Gaudîya-sampradâya of Lord Caitanya, the Vishnusvami-sampradâya and the Nimbarka-sampradâya).

- The disciplic succession of the Brahmâ sampradâya is as follows: B r a h mâ, N â r a d a, V y â s a, Madhvâcârya(Pûrnaprajna), Padmanâbha, Narahari, Mâdhava, Akshobhya, Jayatîrtha, Jñânasindhu, Dayânidhi, Vidyânidhi, Râjendra Tirtha, Jayadharma (Vijayadhvaja Tîrtha), Purushottama Tîrtha, Brahmanya Tîrtha, Vyâsa Tîrtha, Lakshmîpatî, Mâdhavendra Pûrî, Îs'vara Pûrî, S' r î C a i t a n y a M a h â p r a b h u, Svarûpa Dâmodara (Vis'vambara) en S' r î R û p a G o s v â m î en anderen, S'rî Raghunâtha dâsa Gosvâmî, K r i s h n a d â s a K a v i r â j a G o s v â m î, N a r o t t a m a d â s a T h h â k u r a, V i s' v a n â t h a C a k r a v a r t î T h h â k u r a, Baladeva Vidyâbhûshana, Jagannâtha dâsa Bâbâjî, B h a k t i v i n o d a T h h â k u r a, S' r î G a u r a K i s h o r a d â s a B â b â j î, S' r i m a d B h a k t i s i d d h â n t a S a r a s w a t î, A. C. B h a k t i v e d a n t a S w â m i P r a b h u p â d a.

- Disciplic succession of spiritual masters (see also â c â r y a's). Line in succession in which the teaching is handed down (see also p a r a m p a r â).

Samsâr(a): the world as an ocean of material suffering. Matter as a forest fire to the soul. The cycle or wheel of repeated birth and death.

Samyama: the integration of concentration, meditation and absorption, d h â r a n â, d h y â n a and s a m â d h i (see also a s h t h â n g a  y o g a).

Sams'aya: doubt.

Samskâra: purification ritual (see g a r b â d h â n a and a n n a - p r â s a n a).

- The following purification mantra is e.g. used when one takes a bath (from the Garuda Purana, cited in Hari-bhakti-vilâsa 3.47); It belongs to the nârâyana kavacha shield of mantra's used to ward of fear (see 6.8: 4-6).

'om apavitrah pavitro vâ
sarvâvasthâm gato 'pi vâ
yah smaret pundarîkâksam
sa bâhyâbhyantarah sucih
s'rî-visnuh s'rî-visnuh s'rî-visnuh'

'whether one is holy or of sin
or even had to go through all
he remembering the lotusvision
is purified within without
Lord Vishnu, Lord Vishnu, Lord Vishnu'

Translation: "Unpurified or purified, or even having passed through all situations,one who remembers the lotus-eyed Supreme Personality of Godhead iscleansed within and without."

- Subliminal impression: P a t a ñ j a l i, Y o g a S u t r a III.18: 'In the observation of his subliminal impressions or samskâras is there the knowledge of previous lives' (see also v â s a n â).

Samvatsara: a complete year,a tropical jaar, a solar year (sâmvatsara: yearly, but also: a lunar cycle of 29.5 days, vatsara: a year).

Sanâthana: eternal.

Sanâtana-dhâma: the eternal abode, the V a i k u n t h h a-worlds in the spiritual sky (see also l o k a).

Sanâtana-dharma: the eternal duty unto Him (K r i s h n a) to be of service as a universal and absolute religion; the fight, the 'war of eternity' for His shelter (see also b h â g a v a t a  d h a r m a en v a r n â s' r a m a  d h a r m a).

Sanâtana Gosvâmî: one of the six great spiritual teachers of V r i n d â v a n a, who by Lord C a i t a n y a  M a h â p r ab h u were empowered, to establish and spread the teachings of K r i s h n a -consciousness (see g o s v â m î).

Sanat-kumâra: one of the four K u m â r a s, great sages and godly devotees of the Lord.

Sanâtana-yoga: the eternal activities performed by the living being.

Sangas: attachment (also: r â g a); the emotional preference of associating with material things.

- Material involvement without being of service unto Him.

Sangam: association of devotees also called s a t - s a n g a, to associate in devotion to the true or the truth.

- In a worldy sense: be intimate with, to have sex with.

Sañjaya: he who passed on the G î t â to D h r i t a r â s h t h r a, directly by clairvoyancy. He was his secretary and a pupil of V y â s a - d e v a. See k u r u k s h e t r a).

Sankara (not to confuse with s' a n k a r a): confusion, being mixed up, corruption.

- Unwanted offspring; of mixed marriages.

Sankarâcârya (S'ankarâcârya): an incarnation of Lord S' i v a, who appeared in the eight century to propagate an impersonal philosophy, by which he wanted to wipe buddhism out of India so that the authority of the V e d a's could be restored.

- Propagator of the m â y â v â d î - philosophy in which the Lord and the living being are put on the same level (see further S' a n k a r â c â r y a).

Sankarshana ('the one who unites, draws together, plows', see 10.8: 12): the first expansion of the Supreme Personality, who is responsible for the j i v a, the individual soul or ego-consciousness. (see also A n i r u d d h a - of the mind and V â s u d e v a of the consciousness and P r a d y u m n a of the intelligence, see also V y û h a s, S.B. 4.24:35-37 en P a ñ c a - t a t t v a).

- As a transcendental expansion of Lord B a l a r â m a (N i t y â n a n d a) named M a h â - and H a l â y u d h a, He represents the aspect of the individual soul (the j i v a). Is the source of the p u r u s h a - a v a t â r a's (see Vi s h n u).

Sankîrtan: preaching of His glory directly by oral reception or indirectly through the scriptures. Founded by S' r i  C a i t a n y a  M a h â p r a b h u (see also y a j n a).

Sankîrtana-yajna, or mahâ-yajna: the most important of all sacrifices, settled by S' r i  C a i t a n y a  M a h â p r a b h u, consisting of preaching of the glory of God.

- The most important form of this consists of the congregational chanting of the holy names of the Lord in public, to which one always dances and distributes p r a s â d a m. The B h â g a v a t a m calls s a n k î r t a n a the only method possible to counter the corrupting influence of k a l i - y u g a (see e.g. 1.2: 16, 1.6: 32, 2.1: 11, 5.5: 10-13, 6.3: 22, 7.5: 23-24, 8.17: 8, 9.5: 21, 11.5: 36-37, 11.11: 23-24, 11.14: 24, 11.27: 35, 11.28: 40).

Sankîrtana: all activity of preaching the glory of God for the good of everyone.

Sannyâsa:

- To detach oneself from the fruits of one's actions in doing one's duty.

- The order of renouncing the world, â s' r a m a, of the mendicant preachers (see also m a h â  b h â g a v a t a).

- Fourth and last order of phase of spiritual life (see â s' r a m a); complete detachment from a family or societal life in order to arrive at perfectly controlled mind and senses and a full dedication of service unto K r i s h n a.

- There are four stages in accepting the renounced order:

1) Kutîcaka: one stays outside one's village in a cottage, and one's necessities, especially one's food, are supplied from home,

2) Bahûdaka: one no longer accepts anything from home: instead, one, madhukari, with the "profession of the bumblebees", collects one's necessities, especially one's food, from many places

3) Parivrâjakâcârya: one travels all over the world to preach the glories of Lord Vâsudeva collecting one's necessities, especially one's food, from many places, and

4) Paramahamsa: he finishes his preaching work and sits down in one place, strictly for the sake of advancing in spiritual life.  

Sannyâsî: the devotee of K r i s h n a who gave up everything in order to serve the Lord (see 11.18).

- Someone who lives according the rules and regulations of s a n n y â s a (see also â s' r a m a).

Santa: one of the five direct or primary r a s a s or manifestations of love considered the main r a s a s: the neutral one.

Santa (S'anta): a devotee of realization, those who have attained peace; (see also m u n i s and s â d h u s).

Santosa/santush: peacefulness; contentment to be satisfied, part of n i y a m a.

Sanskrit: the language of the Vedas, one of the oldest languages in the world. A dead language fundamental to modern indian languages as Hindi and Bangla, mainly practiced by priests reciting from the classical scriptures (see for a modern Sanskrit dictionary and V i s' v a k o s h a).

- The language is characterized by conjugations and contaminations of practically every word in a sentence to the verb ruling. As an old language it is endlessly connoted in which words like k a r m a and d h a r m a take several pages to describe and also for each English concept countless Sanskrit descriptions are found. To understand any Sanskrit thus heavily depends on the school of interpretation (see also s i d d h â n t a) (see further a textbook about it and an online course).

- Grammatically, Sanskrit has eight cases for the noun (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, instrumental, vocative, and locative), three genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter), three numbers for verbs, nouns, pronouns, and adjectives (singular, dual, and plural), and three voices for the verb (active, middle, and passive). The language is very highly inflected.

- The original script is called Devanâgarî. De translation in western letters is called I-trans (see downloads).

Sarasvatî: the goddess of education and scholarship. Eternal companion of Lord B r a h m â.

Sarga: the material creation, the primary creation. The five gross elements, the objects of the senses and the senses themselves including the mind give rise to the manifestation which is called the created universe (2.10: 3, see also v i s a r g a and 2.10.1-7, and 12: 7: 9-11).

Sarva-gatah: omnipresence. Quality of the soul.

Sat: (being, existing, occurring, happening, being present; the real, the true, the good, the right; the beautiful wise and honest) in the opposition of sat-asat is by this term the absolute truth indicated as opposed to the relative truth, nature as opposed to culture, the Time of the dynamic living reality of the natural world as opposed to manmade illusory (though necessary) fixations of order; the denominated relative to the denomination (see also r i t a - a n r i t a and 11: 28).

- The resounding of the word Sat is used in the agreed upon activities of the devotion to the nature of the Supreme; it is uttered to indicate the activities meant and the Absolute of the truth (B.G. 17: 26-27).

Satarûpâ (S'atarûpâ): wife of S v â y a m b h u v a M a n u, see (3.12: 54), and the mother of D e v a h û t i.

- Among the ladies is K r i s h n a S'atarûpâ (see also M o h i n i M û r t i, 11.16: 25).

- Vedic equivalent of Eva, the first created woman.

Sat-cit-ânanda: eternity, consciousness, bliss. Main qualities of K r i s h n a relating to the three levels of realization: b r a h m a n, p a r a m â t m â and b h a g a v â n: the impersonal spirit, the localized aspect, and His complete. What counts in selfrealization is the consecutive realization of the continuity of the impersonal spirit, the consciousness of the local aspect and the happiness of His opulence, His Person.

- The qualities of the spiritual and absolute form (v i g r a h a) of the Supreme Lord; but also of the original form of the living beings, who so sure are part of His being.

- The qualities of spiritual existence on itself.

- The transcendental spirit soul exhibits his own qualities of eternality (s a t), knowledge (c i t) and bliss (â n a n d a) in b h a k t i called resp. the sandhinî, samvit and hlâdinî potencies of the Supreme Lord (see pp. 11.22: 12, p o t e n c i e s).

Sat (Sac)-cit-ânanda-vigraha: K r i s h n a in His form of eternity, consciousness and bliss (see also o m t a t s a t).

Satî: voluntary suicide by women of stepping into the fire after their husbands death. A traditional compulsion that ran obsolete.

- Name of the daughter of the p r a j â p a t i D a k s h a (see 4.4).

Sat-kâla: eternal time for itself, with no further denomination or division, known as the movement of, or that what moves the, matter (see k â l a and a s a t - k â l a).

Satrâjit: 'always victorious'. He was a son of Nighna (see 9.24: 13) and father of Satyabhama; he gave her to atone for the s y a m a n t a k a-affair (see 10.56) and thus became a father-in-law of K r i s h n a. He was killed by Satadhanvan.

Sat-sanga: association of devotees or simply sangam, to meet with; the eternal bond of K r i s h n a and His devotees.

Sat-ûrmi: see s h a t h - û r m i.

Sattva: the mode of goodness, the quality of purity or goodness that renders a person true, honest, wise (see g u n a s).

- S'uddha-sattva or s'uddhas'îla: pure goodness, purity of character, innocense guilessness, a quality at a high level of b h a k t i.

- The way of goodness in K r i s h n a - c o n s c i o u s n e s s of transcending the modes.

- Character, vital breath, life, consciousness, strength of character, strength, firmness, energy, resolution, courage, selfcommand, good sense, wisdom, magnanimity.

- The highest of the three modes (B.G. 14: 6).

- Inner strength, being, existence, entity, reality, true essence, nature, disposition of mind.

- Spiritual essence, spirit, mind.

- A thing pure, clean;

- Material or elementary substance, entity, matter, a thing.

Sâtvata: (of Satvata, the one to the absolute truth, a name of K r i s h n a) another name for devotee, servant of the Absolute Truth (s a t).

- Specifically the ones devoted to K r i s h n a ; the Yadus and the Vaishnavas.

Sat-ûrmi: zie s h a t h - û r m i.

Satya: truth, love of truth. second part of y a m a (see a s h t h â n g a - y o g a). One leg of the bull of d h a r m a (see K a l i - y u g a).

- Name for the first epoch of a m a h â y u g a (see also k r i t a).

- As a quality of b h a k t i: see s a t y a - d h a r m a.

- Name of a l o k a : 'the place of truth' also named b r a h m a l o k a.

Satya-dharma: the religion of the truth. Term for K r i s h n a - b h a k t i as the truth loving performance of duty (the 'real thing').

Satyam-sivam-sundaram: the true, the conscious and the beauty as the essence of divinity.

Satyavrata: a saintly king, a great personality and devotee of Lord N â r â y a n a, who performed penances and austerities only subsisting on water and as a son of the sungod became celebrated as S' r â d d h a d e v a by Lord H a r i being entrusted the position of M a n u (V a i s h v a s v a t a  M a n u). He was the one who discovered M a t s y a, the Lord in His fish-incarnation (8.24: 10).

Satya-yuga: first period of a m a h â y u g a, four times as long as K a l i - y u g a (see also k r i t a and h a m s a).

Saubhari Muni: mighty mystic who fell down attracted by the copulation of a couple of fish (S.B 9.6).

Sauca (s'auca): purity (for self-awareness also spiritual). Part of n i y a m a (see also V i d h i). Relates to the defense of respect for the celibate state, the original person, the children's soul (see also d â n a).

Saunaka Rishi (S'aunaka): the chief of the sages who were present in N a i m i s h â r a n y a when S û t a G o s v â m î related the S' r î m a d - B h â g a v a t a m.

Sauri: see S' a u r i.

Scriptures, revealed scriptures, also s' â s t r a. The vedic scriptures in general (s' r u t i; the V e d a's and U p a n i s h a d s ) or each other scripture with authority in the field of spiritual knowledge (s m r t i; the i t i h â s a's, p u r â n a's and such), provided that along this course of the p a r a m p a r â 2) is explained what the being is of the Absolute Truth, or the Supreme Being, of the individual soul and his eternal bond that binds them together (see also v e d a and p u r â n a).

Senses: also i n d r i y a. The five senses or sense organs: hearing, touch, sight, taste and smell. Also, in a broader sense, the ten senses: the senses of perception or j ñ â n e n d r i y a s (ears, skin, eyes, tongue and nose) and the working senses k a r m e n d r i y a s (mouth, arms, legs, genitals and anus), Sometimes the mind is added as the eleventh sense (S.B. 3.26: 13). They are part of the twenty-five elements (see also e l e m e n t s).

 

S(h)-Voortgezet

 

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Sanskrit Dictionary

 

S'rîmad Bhâgavatam | Bhagavad Gîtâ | Nederlandse versie

 

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