See for the online version with illustrations, music and links to the previous translation: http: //bhagavata.org/
'The Story of the Fortunate One'
Third revised version 2012
The Status Quo
Chapter 20 The Beings Created by Brahmâ
Chapter 21 The Conversation Between Manu and Kardama
Chapter 22 The Marriage of Kardama Muni and Devahûti
Chapter 23 Devahûti's Lamentation
Chapter 24 The Renunciation of Kardama Muni
Chapter 25 The Glories of Devotional Service
Chapter 26 Fundamental Principles of Material Nature
Chapter 27 Understanding Material Nature
Chapter 28 Kapila's Instructions on the Execution of Devotional Service
Chapter 29 Explanation of Devotional Service by Lord Kapila
Chapter 30 Lord Kapila Describes the Adverse Consequences of Fruitive Activities
Chapter 31 Lord Kapila's Instructions on the Wanderings of the Living Entities
Chapter 32 The Entanglement in Fruitive Activities
Chapter 33 The Renunciation of Devahûti
IntroductionThis book tells the story of the Lord and His incarnations since the earliest records of Vedic history, the history of the original culture of knowledge of India. It is verily the Krishna 'bible' [in Sanskrit called a samhitâ] of the Hindu universe. The Bhagavad Gîtâ relates to this book like the sermon on the mountain by Lord Jesus relates to the full Bible. It has about 18.000 verses contained in 335 chapters and consists of 12 subdivisons of books that are called Cantos. These books together tell the complete history of the Vedic culture and cover the essence of the classical collections of stories called the Purânas. This specific collection of Vedic stories is considered the most important one of all the great eigtheen classical Purânas of India. It includes the cream of the Vedic knowledge compiled from all the Vedic literatures as also the story of the life of Lord Krishna in full (Canto 10). Lord Krishna constitutes a watershed in the history between the old Vedic culture and the 'modern' political culture in which the rule of state no longer automatically is led by the spiritual order. The book tells the story of His birth, His youth, all His wonderful proofs of His divine nature and His superhuman feats of defeating all kinds of demons up to the great Mahâbhârat war at Kurukshetra. In this war the Vedic culture fell down to be replaced by the fragmented relighiosity we these days call Hinduism. This leading Purâna also called the 'perfect Purâna', is a brilliant story that has been brought to the West by S'rîla A.C. Bhaktivedânta Swami Prabhupâda, a Caitanya Vaishnava, a bhakti (devotional) monk of Lord Vishṇu [the name for the transcendental form of Lord Krishna]. He undertook the daring task of enlightening the materialist westerners, the advanced philosophers and theologians, in order to help them to overcome the perils and loneliness of impersonalism and the philosophy of emptiness.
For the translation the author of this internet version has consulted the translations of C.L Goswami. M.A., Sâstrî (from the Gîtâ Press, Gorakhpur), the paramparâ [disciplic succession] version of S'rîla Vishvanâtha Cakravarti Thhâkura and the later version of this book by S'rîla A.C. Bhaktivedânta Swami Prabhupâda. The latter translators as âcâryas [guru teaching by example] of the age-old Indian Vaishnava tradition are representatives of a culture of reformation of the devotion for God or bhakti, the way it has been practiced in India since the 16th century. This reformation asserts that the false authority of the caste system and single dry book knowledge is to be rejected. S'rî Krishna Caitanya, also called Caitanya Mahâprabhu (1486-1534), the avatâra [an incarnation of the Lord] who heralded this reform, restored the original purpose of developing devotion unto the person of God and endeavored in particular for dissemination of the two main sacred scriptures expounding on that devotion in relation to Krishna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. These scriptures are the Bhagavad Gîtâ and this Bhâgavata Purâna, that is also called the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam, from which all the Vaishnava âcâryas derived their wisdom for the purpose of instruction and the shaping of their devotion. The word for word translations as also the full text and commentaries of this book were studied within and without the Hare Krishna temples where the teaching of this culture takes place. The purpose of the translation is first of all to make this glorious text available to a wider audience over the Internet. Since the Bible, the Koran and numerous other holy texts are readily available, the translator meant that this book could not stay behind on the shelf of his own bookcase as a token of material possessiveness. When we started with this endeavor in the year 2000 there was no proper web presentation of this book. Knowledge not shared is knowledge lost, and certainly this type of knowledge, which stresses the yoga of non-possessiveness and devotion as one of its main values could not be left out. The version of Swami Prabhupâda is very extensive covering some 2400 pages of plain fine printed text including his commentaries. And that were only the first ten Cantos. The remaining two Cantos were posthumously published by his pupils in the full of his spirit. I thus was faced with two daring challenges: one was to concatenate the text or make a readable running narrative of the book that had been dissected and commented to the single word and the second challenge was to put it into a language that would befit the 21st century with all its modern and postmodern experience and digital progress of the present cultural order of the world, without losing anything of its original verses. Thus another verse to verse as-it-is translation came about in which Vishvanâtha's, Prabhupâda's and Sâstrî's words were pruned, retranslated and set to the understanding and realization of today. This realization in my case originated directly from the disciplic line of succession of the Vaishnava line of âcâryas as also from a realization of the total field of indian philosophy of enlightenment and yoga discipline as was brought to the West by also non-Vaishnava gurus and maintained by their pupils. Therefore the author has to express his gratitude to all these great heroes who dared to face the adamantine of western philosophy with all its doubts, concreticism and skepticism. Especially the pupils of Prabhupâda, members of the renounced order (sannyâsîs) who instructed the author in the independence and maturity of the philosophy of the bhakti-yogis of Lord Caitanya need to be mentioned. I was already initiated in India by a non-Vaishnava guru and have been given the name of Swami Anand Aadhar ('teacher of the foundation of happiness'). That name the Krishna community converted into Anand Aadhar Prabhu ('master of the foundation of happiness') without further ceremonies of Vaishnava initiation (apart from a basic training). With the name Anand Aadhar I am a withdrawn devotee, a so-called vânaprashta, who does his devotional service independently in the silence and modesty of his local adaptations of the philosophy.
In most cases the word for word translations and grammatical directions of S'rîla A.C. Bhaktivedânta Swami Prabhupâda/ISKCON, Vishvanâtha Cakravarti Thhâkura and C.L. Goswami. M.A., Sâstrî have been followed as they were used in their translations and I have checked them with the help of the Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary [see the file of the terms used]. In footnotes and between square brackets [ ] sometimes a little comment and extra info is given to accommodate the reader when the original text is drawing from a more experienced approach. On the internetsite bhagavata.org of this book, my version refers to the version of Prabhupâda that is linked up at each verse together with my own previous version so that it is possible to retrace at any moment what I have done with the text. This is in accordance with the scientific tradition of the Vaishnava community.
For the copyright on this translation the so-called Commons Attribution Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License has been chosen. This means that one is free to copy, distribute and alter the text on the condition of attribution (refer to the name of Anand Aadhar and to my website address bhagavata.org), that the resulting work can only be distributed under the same or similar license to this one and that one cannot use the text for commercial purposes. For all other usage one will have to contact the translator.
With love and devotion,
Anand Aadhar Prabhu,
Enschede, The Netherlands, April 17, 2012.
Chapter 20: The Beings Created by Brahmâ
(1) S'aunaka said: "After the position of the earth was restored [by Lord Varâha] oh son of Romaharshana [Sûta], what did Svâyambhuva Manu [see 2.7: 2, 3.12: 54, 3.13: 2] do to show those to be born the path? (2) Vidura, the great, unalloyed devotee and intimate friend of Lord Krishna, abandoned his elder brother [Dhritarâshthra] because he and his hundred sons went against Krishna. (3) Born from the body of Vyâsa and in no way inferior to him in greatness, he with all his heart took shelter of Lord Krishna and followed those devoted to Him. (4) What was it that this hero of purity when he visited the holy places asked Maitreya, the foremost knower of spiritual life whom he had met at Kus'âvarta [Hardwar] where he resided? (5) When the two engaged in their conversation oh Sûta, that resulted in the spotless narrations that like the waters of the Ganges vanquish all sins when one takes shelter of the Lord's lotus feet. (6) All good fortune to you! Tell us the stories about His selfless actions that are so worthy to be sung. What devotee appreciative of the devotional mellows [rasas] one has with Him would have enough of drinking in the nectar of the Lord's pastimes?"
(7) Thus being questioned by the sages assembled in the Naimishâranya forest, Sûta who had dedicated his mind to the Lord then said to them: "Just listen to this."
(8) Sûta said: "Vidura, having heard how the Lord had assumed the body of a boar, He by His own potency had uplifted the earth from the bottom of the ocean and as a good sport indifferently had killed Hiranyâksha, was overjoyed and addressed the sage. (9) Vidura said: 'Oh holy sage, knower of that which is beyond our scope, please tell me what Brahmâ has started after bringing forth the Prajâpatis who created mankind. (10) How did the learned ones headed by Marîci observe the brahminical order of Svâyambhuva Manu and how have they developed this world? (11) Have they operated being married, did they remain independent or have they all worked together bringing about all of this?'
(12) Maitreya said: 'By Mahâ-Vishnu, by the eternally active power of the hard to grasp divine ordinance, the equilibrium of the three modes of nature got disturbed, so that the complete of the Fortunate One His material elements was produced. (13) From the greatness of the cosmic intelligence [the mahat-tattva], as ordained by the divine, beginning from the [spatial force field of the] ether the birth of the basic reality of the material elements [the ego as known] in groups of five took place [the five elements, five senses, five sense objects and five sense organs] with the threefold of nature in which the element of passion [or quality of movement] predominates. (14) Those elements, which on themselves could not bring about the coherence of the material universe, produced, having combined with the union of the divine, a globe that shone like gold. (15) It lay in the waters of the causal ocean as an egg in an unconscious state for in fact quite a bit longer than a thousand [celestial] years before the Lord [as Garbhodakas'âyî Vishnu] entered it. (16) From the Lord's navel the lotus of a thousand and more suns sprouted with a dazzling splendor [the galaxy, see 2.2: 24-25]. It is the abode of all conditioned souls where the self-born one [Lord Brahmâ, the Creator] found his existence as the first living entity. (17) When the Lord who sleeps in the causal waters entered Brahmâ's heart, he created the universe as he did before.
(18) First of all he from his shadow created the five types of ignorance called tâmisra [forgetfulness], andha-tâmisra [the illusion of death], tama [not knowing oneself], moha [the illusion of being matter] and mahâ-moha [mad after matter, craving; compare 3.12: 2]. (19) Dissatisfied Brahmâ threw off this body of ignorance which was then seized by Yakshas [evil spirits] and Râkshasas [wild men, demons] to serve as the darkness that is the source of hunger and thirst. (20) Controlled by that hunger and thirst they ran after him in order to eat him and cried in their affliction: 'Do not spare him!' (21) That disturbed the godhead and he told them: 'Do not eat me, but preserve me, for you Râkshasas and Yakshas are my sons!'
(22) The demigods who shine with the glory of the fear of God and were created first, took hold of the effulgent form of the daytime which as the vehicle of God was left behind. (23) The god, from his backside, next gave birth to the godless who fond of sex approached the Creator in lust for copulation. (24) At first the worshipable Lord had to laugh about being followed by the shameless ones of darkness, but he then terrified and annoyed, hurried to get away. (25) He turned to Him who bestows all boons and whose feet are sought, the Lord who dispels distress and who, in order to show His mercy to His devotees, manifests Himself in a suitable form: (26) 'Protect me oh Supersoul, following Your order I created those sinful living beings who approach me for having sex, oh Master. (27) Only You are capable of relieving the people who are afflicted by material miseries, only You can stop those who do not take shelter of Your feet.'
(28) He who unerringly knows the mind of each soul, seeing the distress of Lord Brahmâ told him: 'Cast off your impure body' and thus commanded he cast it off. (29) That body [in the form of a woman] was intoxicating with tinkling ankle bells, adorable feet, overwhelming eyes and a gold-ornamented shining girdle around the hips covered by fine cloth. (30) The breasts were tightly pressed together and raised high, the nose was well formed, the teeth beautiful, the smile lovely and the look defiant. (31) She hid herself out of shyness. Oh Vidura, all the godless ones fancying the braids of her dark hair were captivated by the woman: (32) 'Oh what a beauty, what a grace; oh what a budding youth! That she walks with us who are so desirous of her, as if she's free from passion!' (33) Indulging in all kinds of speculation about the evening twilight that had assumed the form of a young woman, the wicked-minded ones fond of her, full of respect asked her: (34) 'Who are you? Whom do you belong to, oh pretty one? Why have you come here, oh passionate lady? You are tantalizing us, unfortunate ones, with the priceless commodity of your beauty! (35) Whoever you may be oh beautiful girl, by the fortune of seeing you play with a ball, we onlookers have lost our head. (36) Moving your lotus feet about oh beautiful woman, you bounce that ball with the palm of your hand. The weight of your full grown breasts must be tiresome for that waist of yours. You look as if you're tired, please loosen the tie of your hair!'
(37) The godless this way with their minds clouded took the twilight of the evening for the wanton form of an alluring woman and seized her. (38) With a smile of deep significance the worshipful Lord then by the self-awareness of His own sweetness created the hosts of celestial musicians and dancing girls [the Gandharvas and Apsaras]. (39) The attractive form that factually was the shining moonlight He gave up and the Gandharvas headed by Vis'vâvasu gladly took possession of it. (40) When Lord Brahmâ, after he from sloth had created the ghosts and evil spirits, saw them naked and with disorderly hair, he closed his eyes. (41) They took possession of the body was thrown off that by the master of creation and which is known as yawning. With it one sees the living beings drooling in their sleep, which is an unclean state that [with the ghosts and evil spirits belonging to it] constitutes the bewilderment of which one speaks as insanity. (42) Recognizing himself as being full of energy the worshipful Brahmâ, the master of all beings, from his invisible form created the hosts of Sâdhyas and Pitâs [the invisible demigods and departed souls]. (43) They, the Pitâs, accepted that body, the source of their existence, and it is through that body that those well versed in the rituals offer their oblations [called s'râddha] to these Sâdhyas and Pitâs. (44) The Siddhas [the ones of special powers] and also the Vidyâdharas [the knowledgeable spirits] were created by his faculty of remaining hidden from vision. He gave them that wonderful form of himself known as Antardhâna [of being present but remaining unseen]. (45) From admiring himself seeing his reflection in the water the master in his self-awareness created the Kinnaras [the ones of power] and Kimpurushas [the monkey-like]. (46) They took possession of the form of the shadow he left behind, for the reason of which they every daybreak [during the brâhma-muhûrta, one and a half hours before sunrise] gather with their spouses to glorify his exploits in song. (47) Once fully stretching his body as he laid down, he to his great concern saw that the creation lacked in progress. Thereupon he out of his anger gave up that body also. (48) Oh Vidura, from the hairs falling from that body the beings without limbs were created. From their crawling bodies the snakes evolved from whom one with the vicious cobras sees the hood on their neck.
(49) When he [once] felt as if he had accomplished his life's purpose, from his mind finally sprouted the Manus [the original fathers of mankind] for promoting the welfare of the world. (50) He gave them the form of his own impassioned, personal body, seeing which those who were created earlier welcomed the Prajâpati [the founding father] with the following eulogy: (51) 'O Creator of the Universe, you created everything so very well: all the ritualistic customs you have settled so firmly for us to share in the sacrificial oblations! (52) By being of penance, through worship and by connectedness in yogic discipline being immersed in the finest absorption, you the first seer, the controller of the senses, have evolved the sages, your beloved sons. (53) Each of them you, the unborn one, have given a part of your own body that carries deep meditation, yogic union, supernatural ability, penance, knowledge and renunciation.'
Chapter 21: The Conversation Between Manu and Kardama
(1) Vidura said: 'Oh supreme one, be so good to describe the most esteemed dynasty of Svâyambhuva Manu, the sexual intercourse of which led to all the progeny. (2) Priyavrata and Uttânapâda, the two sons of Svâyambhuva Manu, ruled according to the principles of religion the world consisting of the seven continents. (3) The daughter of that Manu named Devahûti oh brahmin, was the wife of the father of mankind you spoke of [see 3.12: 27] as Kardama Muni, oh sinless one. (4) Can you tell me, eager as I am, the story about how the many offspring of Kardama Muni, who was in fact a great mystic yogi endowed with the eight perfections [see 3.15: 45], sprouted from her? (5) And how did the worshipful Ruci, oh brahmin, and Daksha, the son of Brahmâ, generate their offspring after securing the two other daughters of Svâyambhuva Manu as their wives?'
(6) Maitreya said: 'Lord Brahmâ told the supreme muni Kardama to beget children after he for ten thousand years had practiced penance on the bank of the river Sarasvatî. (7) Absorbed in that connectedness Kardama in his yoga was of devotional service unto Him, the Lord who bestows all mercy upon the surrendered souls. (8) The Supreme lotus-eyed Lord being pleased then showed him in Satya-yuga through the process of hearing oh Vidura, the absolute truth of His transcendental form. (9) He saw that that body of His was as effulgent and pure as the sun with a garland of white water lilies and lotuses and an abundance of slick blackish-blue locks of hair, a lotus-like face and dressed in spotless clothes. (10) Adorned with a crown and wearing earrings He, captivating the heart with His smiling glances, held a conch, a disc and a mace and played with a white lily. (11) He saw Him in the air standing with His lotus feet on the shoulders of Garuda with the famous Kaustubha jewel on His chest hanging down from His neck. (12) Having achieved his desire he whose heart had always been filled with love jubilantly fell down with his head to the ground and with folded hands pleased [Him] with prayers.
(13) The sage said: 'Oh worshipable Lord, now we have attained the complete success of having You, the Reservoir of All Goodness, before our eyes; a sight that is aspired [even] by yogis who attained the perfection of yoga after gradually elevating through many births. (14) Oh Lord, You even fulfill the desires of those who, because of Your deluding energy, have lost their intelligence and worship Your lotus feet - that are the boat for crossing over the ocean of mundane existence - for the purpose of obtaining the trivial pleasures of life that one also finds in hell. (15) Desiring to marry a girl of a likewise disposition who in one's marriage is as a cow of plenty, I also with doubtful intentions approached You, the root and source of everything and desire tree that fulfills all wishes. (16) Oh original father of all, the conditioned souls in the grip of desire are all bound by the rope of the words of You as the Lord of the living beings. I, following their example also offer my oblations to You, oh light of eternal time. (17) But those who gave up on the pursuance of their animalistic, earthly interests as also the people belonging to them, and by discussing Your qualities with each other took shelter under the umbrella of Your lotus feet, with the help of that intoxicating nectar put an end to their being a servant of their physical bodies. (18) The wheel of the universe which with a tremendous speed spins around the axle of the imperishable [nature] of You [Brahman] with three naves [sun, moon and stars], [twelve to] thirteen spokes [as lunar months], three hundred and sixty joints [as days in a demigod year], six rims [as seasons], and innumerable leaves [moments], cuts short the life-span of the universe but not the lives of the devotees. (19) You oh Supreme Lord as the One Self without a second, are desirous to bring about in Yourself and control by Your deluding yogamâyâ potency, the universes that You by dint of Your own potency create, maintain and again wind up like a spider does. (20) This material world with its gross and subtle elements that You manifest for us, was not just meant by You for providing sensual pleasures. Let that world be there also for our ultimate good [the beatitude] whenever we through Your causeless mercy may perceive the Fortunate One splendid with the tulsî [of the devotion for You]. (21) In order to realize the detachment from enjoying the fruits, You by Your energies brought about the material worlds. I continuously offer My obeisances to the worshipable lotus feet that shower benedictions on the insignificant ones.'
(22) The sage [Maitreya] said: 'Thus having been praised sincerely Lord Vishnu replied Kardama Muni with words sweet as nectar, while He, radiating affection standing on the shoulders of Garuda, smilingly looked on from below His expressive eyebrows. (23) The Supreme Lord said: 'Knowing your state of mind, I have already arranged that for which you exercised yourself with Me as the one and only to be worshiped. (24) The exclusive worship of Me the way it exists of people like you who have fixed their attention fully on Me, is never without meaning and purpose, oh leader of the people. (25) The son of the father of man, the emperor Svâyambhuva Manu, whose righteous actions are well known, lives in Brahmâvarta [the world as part of Brahmâ's lotus] where he rules over the seven oceans and the earth. (26) He, the saintly king, oh learned one, will along with his queen come to this place the day after tomorrow, wishing to meet you as an expert in religious matters. (27) He has a grown-up daughter with black eyes and a character full of good qualities and is searching for a husband. He will give you her hand in marriage oh master, for you are a suitable candidate. (28) She is the one your heart longed for all these years, she is your princess oh brahmin and will soon serve you to your desire. (29) She, from the seed sown in her by you, will give birth to nine daughters, and from those daughters the sages will beget all of their children. (30) When you've carried out My command properly and are completely purified unto Me in forsaking the fruits of action, you will finally attain Me. (31) And when you have shown compassion and have given assurance to all souls, you will be self-realized and perceive yourself and the universe as being in Me, as also Me being in you. (32) By your semen I will [appear] as My own plenary portion oh great sage and instruct your wife Devahûti in the doctrine of the ultimate reality.'
(33) Maitreya said: 'Thus having spoken to him, the Supreme Lord who could be directly perceived by the senses departed from lake Bindu-sarovar through which the river Sarasvatî flows. (34) While He before his eyes left by the path of perfection [to the spiritual world] that is praised by all liberated souls, the sage heard the hymns that form the Sâma Veda being vibrated by the wings of the Lord's carrier [Garuda]. (35) Then, after His departure, Kardama, the greatly powerful sage, stayed on the bank of lake Bindu, waiting for the things to come.
(36) Svâyambhuva Manu mounted together with his wife a gold-plated chariot, placed his daughter on it and traveled all over the earth. (37) Oh great archer, as the Lord had foretold, he reached the hermitage of the sage on the very day he completed his vows of austerity. (38-39) That holy auspicious water of the Sarasvatî river flooding the lake was the nectar that had been frequented by hosts of great sages. It was verily a lake of tears, the way it was called after the teardrops that fell down from the Lord's eyes when He was overwhelmed by His extreme compassion for this surrendered soul. (40) The place was holy with clusters of trees and creepers with the pleasant cries of good-natured animals and birds. Adorned by the beauty of groves of trees it was rich with fruits and flowers throughout all the seasons. (41) It teemed with the life of flocks of birds, intoxicated bees madly buzzing around, peacocks proudly dancing and merry cuckoos calling each other. (42-43) The lake was adorned by kadamba, campaka, as'oka, karañja and bakula flowers and âsana, kunda, mandâra, kuthaja trees and young mango trees and the pleasant sounds could be heard of kârandava ducks, plavas, swans, ospreys, waterfowls, cranes, cakravâka and cakora birds. (44) There were also masses of deer, boars, porcupines, gavayas [wild cows], elephants, baboons, lions, monkeys, mongooses and musk deer.
(45-47) When the first monarch with his daughter entered that eminent place, he saw the sage sitting in his hermitage, offering oblations in the sacred fire. His body shone brilliantly because of his prolonged, terrible penance of yoga and was not very emaciated, for the Lord had cast His affectionate, sidelong glance upon him and made him listen to His moonlike, nectarean words. He was tall with eyes as the petals of a lotus, had matted locks of hair and ragged clothes. Approaching him he appeared to be soiled like an unpolished gem. (48) The monarch having approached the cottage bowed before him, whereupon the sage received him with honor and gave him a welcome befitting a king. (49) After having accepted the respect offered, he then remained seated silently and was delighted to hear what the sage, thinking of what the Lord had told him, then in a pleasant tone of voice said:
(50) 'I am sure oh divine personality, that you tour around in order to protect the virtuous ones and put an end to the life of the wicked ones, since you are the person representing the Lord's protective potency. (51) According to the necessity you assume the different forms of the sun, the moon, the fire [Agni], the Lord of heaven [Indra], the wind [Vâyu], the one chastising [Yama], the religion [Dharma] and of the waters [Varuna]. I offer Lord Vishnu who is You my obeisances. (52-54) If you would not have mounted the chariot of victory bedecked with its mass of jewels and have twanged your bow so frighteningly, threatening all the culprits with your presence, if your leading a huge army of trampling foot soldiers would not have shaken the earth roaming the globe like the brilliant sun, then surely all moral codes and obligations of the vocations [varna] and age groups [âs'rama] as arranged by the Lord oh King, alas would have been broken by rogues. (55) When you would rest, unrighteousness would flourish with a lack of control over men who are simply after the money. This world would then be seized by the miscreants and come to naught [see also B.G. 3: 23]. (56) Nevertheless I ask you, oh heroic one, what the reason is of your visit, for that is what we without reservation will carry out with heart and soul.'
Chapter 22: The Marriage of Kardama Muni and Devahûti
(1) Maitreya said: 'After the sage this way had described the greatness of the virtues and activities of emperor Manu he fell silent. The emperor feeling somewhat embarrassed by it then addressed him. (2) Manu said: 'You [brahmins] were in your being connected in penance, knowledge and yoga and being turned away from sense gratification, by the Creator created from His mouth for the purpose of defending Him in the form of praises [Vedic hymns]. (3) And we were by the Father with the Thousand Feet [the Lord of the Universal Form] created from His thousand arms in order to protect them again. Thus the brahmins are called His heart and the kshatriyas [the rulers] His arms. (4) Because the godhead, the One Imperishable who is both cause and effect, defends the both of them, the brahmins and the kshatriyas protect each other as also the [interest of the] soul. (5) By just seeing how you oh supreme one, personally so lovingly explained what the duty of a king is to his subjects, all my doubts have resolved. (6) It is my good fortune oh powerful one, that I could see you who cannot be seen easily by those who are not acting in accord with the soul. Happily enough my head could touch the dust of your feet that bring all the blessing. (7) I am lucky to have been granted the great favor of being instructed by you. How lucky I am to have listened with pricked up ears to your pure words! (8) Oh sage, your honor, now be pleased yourself to listen to the prayer of this humble person whose mind is full of worries out of love for his daughter. (9) This daughter of mine, the sister of Priyavrata and Uttânapâda, is seeking a husband suitable for her age, character and good qualities. (10) The moment she heard from Nârada Muni about your noble character, learning, appearance, youth and virtues, she fixed her mind upon you. (11) Therefore, please accept her oh best of the twice-born ones, she is offered by me believing that she in every way is suitable for your household duties. (12) To deny a thing of one's desire that in fact came by itself is not commendable, not even for someone who is free from attachment to sensual pleasures, let alone someone addicted. (13) He who rejects what is offered [generously] and begs from a stingy person, looses his honor and will see his reputation and renown ruined. (14) Oh wise man, I heard that you intended to marry and hence have not taken the vow of perpetual celibacy. Then please accept my offer [*].'
(15) The rishi replied: 'Yes I would like to marry and your daughter has not promised herself to anyone. Based upon this a marriage of us according to the rules will be proper. (16) Let that desire of your daughter, which is recognized by scriptural authority, be fulfilled oh King. Who would not adore your daughter? Her bodily luster alone outshines the beauty of her ornaments! (17) [But...] was it not Vis'vâvasu [a Gandharva, a heavenly being] who, when he on the roof of the palace saw her with tinkling ankle bells and bewildered eyes playing with a ball, infatuated fell down from his elevated position ['his heavenly vehicle'] with a mind in disarray? (18) What man of wisdom would not welcome her, that gem of womanhood who came of her own accord [to seek my hand] as the beloved daughter of Manu and sister of Uttânapâda, she who is not found by the ones who missed the feet of the goddess of fortune? (19) This is therefore my condition: I will accept the chaste girl for as long as it takes her to be with child from the semen of my body. I thereafter consider to take up the duties of service as respected by the best of the ones of perfection [the paramahamsas], that are nonviolent and about which the Lord spoke to me [in 3.21: 31]. (20) To me the highest authority is the Supreme Unlimited One, the Lord of the fathers of mankind [the Prajâpatis] from whom this wonderful creation emanated, He in whom it will dissolve and by whom it presently exists.'
(21) Maitreya said: 'He, oh great warrior, spoke this much only and became silent with his thoughts focussed on Vishnu's lotus navel. With a beautiful smile on his face, he then captured the mind of Devahûti. (22) After Manu had confirmed the decision taken by the queen mother [S'atarûpâ] and also had probed his daughter's mind about him, he extremely pleased gave her away who endowed with as many good qualities was a good match for him [Kardama]. (23) S'atarûpâ, the empress, lovingly gave in dowry to the bride and bridegroom valuable presents like ornaments, clothes and household articles. (24) The emperor relieved of the responsibility of giving his daughter to a suitable man then with an agitated mind full of anxiety enclosed her in his arms. (25) Unable to part from her he shed tears, drenching his daughter's hair over and over with the water from his eyes and cried: 'Oh good girl, my dearest daughter!'
(26-27) After asking and receiving permission to leave him, the best of sages, the emperor with his wife mounted his chariot and headed along with his retinue for his capital, on the road enjoying the tranquil scenery of the hermitages of the sages on both the charming banks of the river Sarasvatî. (28) Elated to know who was arriving, the subjects of Brahmâvarta went to meet him with songs, praise and instrumental music. (29-30) The city, rich with all kinds of wealth, was named Barhishmatî after the hairs of the shaking body of Lord Boar that had fallen down and turned into the evergreen kus'a and kâs'a grass [grasses used for sitting places and mats] with which the sages defeated the disturbers of their sacrifices in worship of Lord Vishnu. (31) Having spread that kus'a and kâs'a grass the greatly fortunate Manu had created a seat in worship of the Lord of Sacrifice [Vishnu] by whom he had achieved his position on earth. (32) Having arrived in the city of Barhishmatî where he thus far had lived, the mighty one entered his palace that eradicated the threefold miseries of life [of body and mind, as caused by others and of nature]. (33) He, not disturbed by others, enjoyed the pleasures of life together with his wife and subjects and was praised for his reputation of piety, for he was in his heart very drawn to listening with his wives each morning to the celestial musicians and talks about the Lord. (34) Even though Svâyambhuva Manu was absorbed in the deluding oneness of matter, he was as a saint. Being a supreme devotee of the Lord he could not be led astray by his material enjoyments. (35) He did not spend his hours idle and spent his life till his last days with listening to, contemplating, recording and discussing the topics of Lord Vishnu. (36) In his being connected with the topics of Vâsudeva thus transcending the three destinations [according to the modes, see B.G. chapter 18], he made his era last for the time of seventy-one mahâyugas. (37) How can the miseries pertaining to body and mind, the powers of nature and other men and living beings oh Vidura, ever trouble someone who lives under the protection of the Lord? (38) He [Manu] who always cared about the welfare of all living beings spoke, on the request of the sages, about the many types of duties beneficial to human society of the status orientations [varnas and âs'ramas, the vocations and civil status groups]. (39) This is what I could tell you about the wonderful character of Manu the first emperor, who deserved all praise. Now please listen to the advance of his daughter [Devahûti].'
*: Naishthhika-brahmacârîs vow for lifelong celibacy, upakurvâna-brahmacârîs do so up to a certain age.
Chapter 23: Devahûti's Lamentation
(1) Maitreya said: 'After the departure of the parents the chaste woman who understood the desires of her husband constantly served her spouse with a love as great as that of Pârvatî for S'iva, her Lord. (2) Intimately, with a pure soul, with great respect and sense-control she was of service with love and sweet words oh Vidura. (3) Forsaking lust, pride, envy, greed, sinful actions and vanity she always pleased her powerful husband diligently with good sense. (4-5) She, the daughter of Manu fully devoted to him who no doubt was the foremost sage among the divine rishis, expected greater blessings from him than from providence. But he saw that she had grown weak and emaciated because of the protracted religious observance and with an of love stammering voice he, overcome with compassion, spoke to her. (6) Kardama said: 'At present I am pleased with you oh respectful daughter of Manu, because of your most excellent, supreme service and devotion. But you do not properly take care of that body so extremely dear to this embodiment; you deplete it in my service. (7) The blessings of the Lord I achieved myself in my religious life of being fully engaged in austerity, meditation and fixing my mind in the knowledge, can just as well be obtained by you in your devotional service to me. Look at them with the help of the transcendental vision free from fear and lamentation that I grant you. (8) What material achievements compare to this grace of the Lord of Fortune? Those enjoyments find their end in a single movement of an eyebrow of the Lord of the Great Strides. Thanks to your conscientious service you can now enjoy the success of the supernatural gifts which for people who are proud of their lineage are so difficult to obtain.' (9) After he had spoken this way the woman who heard him excel in the special knowledge of yoga found satisfaction and with a voice choked with humility and love and a shining, smiling face with a slightly bashful glance, she spoke to him.
(10) Devahûti said: 'Oh best of the brahmins, oh mighty husband, I know of the mastery of your infallibility in the power of yoga. Let then now your promise be fulfilled that once we would have united in the body we may enjoy the greater glory of having progeny which for a chaste woman is of such a great value. (11) Do for the sake of this that what according to the scriptures needs to be done and by which this, because of an unfulfilled passion and by emotions struck, emaciated, poor body may be rendered fit for you. And please, oh Lord also think of a suitable mansion.'
(12) Maitreya said: 'Seeking the pleasure of his dearest, Kardama exercised his yogic power and produced instantly a high rising palace according to his idea of a desirable place, oh Vidura. (13) It answered all desires and was wonderfully bedecked with all sorts of jewels, all kinds of luxury increasing over time and pillars carved out of precious stone. (14-15) It was equipped with a heaven of paraphernalia and brought happiness throughout all seasons, was decorated with festoons and flags and wreaths of various colors and fabrics, charming sweet flowers humming with bees, fine cloth of linen and silk and was embellished with various tapestries. (16) In stories one over the other there were separate arrangements of beds, comfortable couches and fanned seats. (17) Here and there various artistic engravings were displayed with the extraordinary beauty of a floor with emeralds furnished with coral daises. (18) The doorways had thresholds of coral and doors beautifully bedecked with diamonds. Its domes of sapphire were crowned with golden pinnacles. (19) On the diamond walls there were the choicest rubies that seemed to give them eyes and it was furnished with various canopies and highly valuable gates of gold. (20) The many artfully crafted swans and groups of pigeons here and there made the real ones who thought to see their own kind repeatedly fly over and vibrate their sounds. (21) The pleasure grounds, resting chambers, bedrooms, inner and outer yards designed for comfort astonished the sage himself.
(22) Kardama, who could understand the heart of everyone, saw that Devahûti was not very happy to see such a mansion and then addressed her personally. (23) 'Oh fearful one, before you ascend this high rising palace, please bathe in the sacred lake created by Lord Vishnu [Bindu-sarovara] that fulfills all desires of man.' (24) She, the lotus-eyed one with her matted hair and dirty clothes, then complied with the words of her husband. (25) With her body and her breasts grubby and covered by dirt she entered the lake containing the sacred waters of the Sarasvatî river. (26) In the lake she saw a house with a thousand girls as fragrant as lotuses in the prime of youth. (27) Seeing her all of a sudden the damsels rose and said with folded hands: 'We are your maidservants, please tell us what we can do for you.' (28) After bathing her with the most costly oils, the respectful girls gave the virtuous wife spotless fine new clothes. (29) They also gave her the most valuable ornaments and very excellent splendid food and sweet intoxicating beverages containing all good qualities. (30) She next looked at the mirror image of her body that, freed from all dirt and clad in clean robes, by the utterly respectful maidservants was adorned with a garland and decorated with auspicious marks. (31) Washed from head to toe she was decorated with a golden necklace with locket and bangles and tinkling ankle bells made of gold. (32) About her hips she wore a girdle made of gold decorated with numerous jewels and she was also adorned with a precious pearl necklace and auspicious substances [like saffron, kunkuma - which is perfumed red powder for the breasts -, mustard seed oil and sandelwood pulp]. (33) With her beautiful teeth, charming eyebrows, lovely moist eyes that defeated the beauty of lotus buds and her bluish curly hair, she shone all over. (34) When she thought of her dear husband, the foremost among the sages, she [all of a sudden] found herself along with her maidservants there where he, the founding father, the Prajâpati was. (35) With that sudden return to her husband surrounded by the thousand maidens she was in awe about his yogic power.
(36-37) The sage, seeing her washed clean, shining forth with a soul of unprecedented beauty, girdled, with charming breasts, attended by a thousand celestial girls and excellently dressed, relished the sight and helped her ascend that elevated place, oh destroyer of the enemy. (38) Even though [he appeared to be] attached to his beloved one who was attended by the girls of heaven, he did not lose his glory. Together with her in the palace his person shone as charmingly as the moon in the sky surrounded by the stars causing rows of lilies to open in the night. (39) In that palace, that heavenly vehicle [a vimâna], he reached the pleasure grounds of the gods of heaven and the valleys of Indra, the king of the mountains, that are so beautiful with the falling waters of the Ganges and the cool breezes that arouse the passion. He who like treasurer Kuvera was surrounded by his damsels thus for a long time enjoyed his life while the ones of perfection, the Siddhas, vibrated the auspicious sounds of their praises. (40) Loved by his wife he enjoyed the gardens of Vais'rambhaka, Surasana, Nandana, Pushpabhadraka, Caitrarathya and lake Mânasa-sarovara. (41) With that splendrous and grand palace answering to every desire he moved through the worlds just like the air that reaches everywhere, and surpassed therewith the palaces, the heavenly vehicles, of the greatest gods. (42) What would be difficult to achieve for those men who are determined, for those who have taken refuge of the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality that vanquish all danger?
(43) After having shown his wife the entire universe with all its arrangements and many wonders, the great yogi returned to his hermitage. (44) In order to sexually please his wife, the daughter of Manu, he divided himself in nine forms and enjoyed the many years with her like in a moment. (45) In the palace lying on an excellent bed conducive to their love, she in the company of her most handsome husband did not notice the passage of time. (46) Thus for the enjoying couple immersed in their lusts by the power of yoga a hundred autumns passed as in a trice. (47) Powerful Kardama as a knower of the soul knew each his desire. He made love to her as her other half and deposited with the body that he had divided in nine his semen in her. (48) Soon thereafter Devahûti gave birth to [nine] female children who all in every limb were as charming as a fragrant red lotus. (49) Seeing that her husband was about to leave home, she gave a beautiful smile but was innerly upset with a heart in distress. (50) Suppressing her tears, scratching the floor with the radiant, gemlike nails of her foot and with her head bent down, she slowly expressed herself in charming words.
(51) Devahûti said: 'All that you have promised my Lord has been fulfilled, but you should grant the surrendered soul that I am freedom from fear also. (52) My dear brahmin, it is left to your daughters to find a suitable husband. But who is there to comfort me when you have left for the forest? (53) Disregarding the knowledge of the Supreme Soul so much idle time has passed my master, with us indulging in pleasing our senses. (54) Attached to the gratification of our senses my love for you went without recognizing your transcendental existence. May that love nevertheless protect me against all fear. (55) Association with those engaged in sense gratification is the cause of the cycle of birth and death, while ignorantly acting like that in association with a saintly person leads to liberation. (56) When one's work here is not performed for the sake of a higher, more righteous life, when one's righteous life does not lead to detachment and when one's detachment does not lead to devotional service at the place where the Lotus Feet are worshipped, one is a zombie, dead while being alive. (57) It suffers no doubt that I was [the one who] completely [was] deceived by the outer material potency of the Lord, because I despite having achieved you did not seek liberation from material bondage.'
Chapter 24: The Renunciation of Kardama Muni
(1) Maitreya said: 'The merciful sage who thus from his renunciation spoke to the praiseworthy daughter of Manu, replied what he remembered of what was said by Lord Vishnu. (2) The sage said: 'Do not blame yourself like this princess! Oh irreproachable lady, the infallible Supreme Lord will very soon appear in your womb. (3) May God bless you for taking up the sacred vows of sense control, religious observance, austerities and giving money in charity by which you worship the Supreme Controller with great faith. (4) He, being worshiped by you, will spread my fame. He as your son will cut the knot in your heart by teaching the knowledge of Brahman [the Absolute Truth].'
(5) Maitreya said: 'Devahûti in her great respect for the lead of this father of mankind, had full faith in him and thus worshiped the most worshipable one, the Original Personality of God who is situated in everyone's heart. (6) After many, many years the Supreme Lord, the killer of Madhu, entered the semen of Kardama and appeared the way fire does in firewood. (7) At that time musical instruments resounded from the rainclouds in the sky, the Gandharvas sang for Him and the Apsaras were dancing in joyful ecstasy. (8) The gods moving through the sky showered flowers and all directions, all the waters and each his mind became happy. (9) The self-born one [Brahmâ] then came together with Marîci and the other sages to that place of Kardama where the Sarasvatî river flows. (10) Oh killer of the enemy [Vidura], the independent unborn one [Lord Brahmâ] knew that the Supreme Lord, the highest authority of Brahman, out of pure goodness as a plenary portion had appeared to teach the philosophy of analytical yoga [Sânkhya yoga]. (11) After with a pure heart having worshiped [the personality of] Vishnu, the unborn one glad in all his senses about His action, said the following to Kardama and Devahûti.
(12) Brahmâ said: 'Kardama, fully accepting my instructions oh son, you have honored me and succeeded in worshiping me without duplicity. (13) This is the exact way for sons to render service to their father. With due respect saying 'Yes sir', the son should obey the commands of his spiritual teacher [or father]. (14) These thin-waisted chaste daughters of yours dear son, will with their offspring in different ways contribute to this creation. (15) Please give therefore today your daughters away to the foremost sages according to the temperament and taste of the girls, and thus spread your fame over the universe. (16) I know that the original enjoyer, the bestower of all that is desired by the living entities, descended by dint of His internal potency and has assumed the body of Kapila Muni oh sage. (17) By spiritual knowledge and the science of the yogic uniting of consciousness He who is known by His golden hair, His lotus eyes and lotus-marked feet, will uproot the foundation of profit-minded labor. (18) Know oh Devahûti that the killer of the demon Kaithabha has entered your womb and with cutting the knot of ignorance and doubt will travel all over the world. (19) This personality will be the leader of the perfected ones, His Vedic analysis will carry the approval of the teachers of example [the âcâryas] and to your greater fame, He will be celebrated in the world as Kapila.'
(20) Maitreya said: 'Having assured the couple this way Hamsa [another name for Brahmâ as flying the transcendental swan], the creator of the universe, together with the Kumâras [his sons] and Nârada [his spokesman] returned to his supreme position over the three worlds. (21) After the departure of Brahmâ oh Vidura, Kardama according to the instruction handed his daughters over to the sages who then were responsible for generating the world population. (22-23) Kalâ he handed over to Marîci, Anasûyâ he gave to Atri, S'raddhâ he gave to Angirâ and Havirbhû was given to Pulastya. Gati he gave to Pulaha and the virtuous Kriyâ he found suitable for Kratu. He gave Khyâti to Bhrigu and Arundhatî was given away to sage Vasishthha. (24) Atharvâ he gave to S'ânti by whom the sacrificial ceremonies are performed. Thus the foremost brahmins married to their wives. They were supported by Kardama. (25) Thus being married oh Vidura, the sages took leave of Kardama to return to their hermitages. They departed filled with joy about what they had obtained.
(26) Kardama knowing that He had descended who appears in the three yugas [Vishnu, only seen as a covered 'channa' - avatâra in the last, fourth yuga] as the supreme intelligence of all the wise, then approached Him in seclusion. He offered his obeisances and spoke to Him as follows: (27) 'Oh, finally after such a long time the gods are of mercy for those who have to suffer being entangled in their own misdeeds in this world. (28) After many births, mature yogis perfect by their absorption in yoga endeavor in seclusion to see His feet. (29) That very same Supreme Lordship, He who is there to support His devotees, has today appeared in our homes, despite the negligence of us ordinary householders high and low. (30) To be true to Your words You have descended in my house with the wish to disseminate the spiritual knowledge of the Fortunate One who is there to the greater honor and glory of the devotees. (31) While You Yourself are without a material form, You please the ones following Your path with whichever of those truly apt forms that You assume. (32) The seat of Your feet is always worth the worshipful respect of all men of learning who desire to understand the Absolute Truth. I surrender myself to You who are full of riches, renunciation, fame, knowledge, strength and beauty [the so-called six opulences of the Lord]. (33) I surrender myself to You Lord Kapila, who are the supreme, transcendental personality, the origin of the world, the full awareness of time and the three modes of nature, the Maintainer of All the Worlds and the sovereign power who by His own potency absorbs the manifestations after their dissolution. (34) Today I ask You the following, oh father of all created beings. Since You relieved me of my debts and fulfilled my desires, I ask You to accept me as someone on the path of an itinerant mendicant so that I may wander about with You in my heart and keep myself far from lamentation.'
(35) The Supreme Lord said: 'That what I have to say of the scriptures or from My own mind concerns in fact the [spiritual] authority for the people. I as promised took My birth with you for the sake of that authority, oh sage. (36) This birth of Mine in the world is there to explain to the ones who seek liberation from the troubles of a material existence, the truths [of Sânkhya yoga] so highly celebrated in self-realization. (37) Please know that because this path is so difficult to comprehend and has been lost in the course of time, this body was assumed by Me to introduce it again. (38) Go now to operate with My approval, as you wish, in accord with the renounced order. In order to conquer insurmountable death, for the sake of eternal life please engage in My devotional service. (39) With your intellect always fixed upon Me, the supreme, self-effulgent soul present in the heart of every living being, you will see Me in your own heart and achieve freedom from fear and lamentation. (40) I will give this knowledge of the soul that leads to a spiritual life and puts an end to all fruitive activity, also to My mother so that she also will conquer the fear.'
(41) Maitreya said: 'The progenitor of human society thus addressed by Kapila, circumambulated Him and, verily pacified, then left for the forest. (42) The sage accepted the vow of silence and traveled, taking shelter of the soul only, unaccompanied the earth without having a dwelling place or making fire. (43) He fixed his mind upon the Parabrahman [the spirit of the Absolute in the Beyond, the essence of the Supreme Lord], who free from the modes of nature manifests as the three modes and can only be realized through devotion. (44) By not identifying with the body and taking no interest in the material affair and the duality, he saw, with an equal vision having turned inward, himself perfectly composed with a sober and undisturbed mind like an ocean with its waves pacified. (45) Established within with his transcendental devotional service to Vâsudeva, the Personality of Godhead, the omniscient Supersoul within everyone, he was liberated from material bondage. (46) He saw the Supreme Personality of God as the soul situated in all living beings and also that all living beings have their existence in the Supreme soul. (47) Free from all like and dislike he, with a mind equal to everyone, liberated in the connectedness of his devotional service to the Supreme Lord, attained the ultimate goal of the devotee.'
Chapter 25: The Glories of Devotional Service
(1) S'rî S'aunaka said: "Although unborn Himself, the Supreme Lord personally from His own potency took birth as Lord Kapila, the analyst of the ultimate truth, in order to disseminate transcendental knowledge for the human race. (2) Hearing repeatedly about Him, the foremost of all yogis and the godhead of the Vedas the greater of whom cannot be found among men, pleases me in all my senses. (3) Please describe to me faithfully all the praiseworthy, self-inspired actions of the Supreme Lord who is so full of the delight of the soul."
(4) Sûta said: "Being a friend of Vyâsadeva the venerable sage Maitreya who was pleased with being asked about transcendental knowledge then spoke as follows to Vidura. (5) Maitreya said: 'When the father had left for the forest, Lord Kapila stayed behind at lake Bindu-sarovara with the desire to please His mother. (6) When He [some day] comfortably sat down before her, Devahûti remembered the words of Brahmâ and addressed Him. He, her son, could show her the path to the goal of the ultimate reality.
(7) Devahûti said: 'Oh my Lord, I am very disgusted with the prevalence of untruth of my agitated senses because of which I fell into the abyss of ignorance. (8) At the end of many births, by Your mercy I now have attained You who are my transcendental eye to overcome the darkness of ignorance that is so difficult to defeat. (9) He who is the origin, de Supreme Lord of all beings and the Master of the Universe has, with You, alike the sun, risen to the eye that was blinded by the darkness of ignorance. (10) You engaged me in this misconception of 'I' and 'mine' [of false ego], so now be pleased my Lord to dispel the delusion. (11) With the desire to know about the material and personal aspect [prakriti and purusha], I offer You my obeisances who are the greatest of all the seers of the true nature. I have taken to the shelter of Your feet because You are the person deserving it, You are for the ones depending on You the ax that cuts the tree of an existence ruled by matter.'
(12) Maitreya said: 'Thus hearing about His mother's innocent and commonly human wish to be successful on the path of liberation, He with a gladdened mind slightly smiling with His beautiful face, expounded on the way of the transcendentalists. (13) The Supreme Lord said: 'The discipline of yoga of relating to the soul for the sake of complete detachment from whatever pleasure and distress, is the ultimate benefit for mankind that carries My approval. (14) Oh pious mother, I will now explain that to you what I formerly explained to the sages who were eager to hear about all the ins and outs of the yoga system. (15) The living being its [state of] consciousness is considered [responsible] for its bondage and liberation. In attraction to the three modes of nature one is materially conditioned, but if one attaches to the soul of the universe [the Original Person], one is of liberation. (16) From the impurities of lust and greed and such, that result from the misconception of 'I' and 'mine', one is freed when the mind is pure in being equipoised, without distress and pleasure. (17) It is in that state that the person, who pure and transcendental to the material world is not bound and fragmented, does not see himself as someone different but as innerly enlightened. (18) With a mind full of spiritual knowledge, renunciation and connectedness in devotion one is indifferent about one's material existence, which is then less of influence. (19) There is no yogic path as auspicious for the perfection of the spirit as the performance of devotional service for the Supreme Lord, the complete of the Soul. (20) Any man of knowledge knows that strong attachment constitutes the entanglement of the soul, but that that same attachment for devotees opens the door to liberation. (21) Being tolerant, compassionate, friendly to all living beings and inimical to no one, peaceful and abiding by the scriptures, the sâdhu [the man of virtue, of holiness, a seer] is adorned with sublime qualities. (22) They who are persistent in performing devotional service unto Me, staunch for My sake refrain from acting in desire and give up family ties and friendships. (23) Delighted to listen to the stories about Me they fix their minds upon Me and chant [My names], without causing distress with their various penances. (24) Oh virtuous mother, try to develop attachment to these devotees who are free from all attachments, for they are the ones who compensate for the harmful effects of being materially entangled. (25) Through association with those who cherish the truth, the stories cultivated in discussing My heroism become a joy to the ear and heart, so that, when one firmly convinced experiences the attraction, soon devotion will follow. (26) A person finding himself situated in devotional service will sincerely strive to control his mind on the path of yoga when he, constantly thinking about My management, in his bhakti has developed a distaste for gratifying his senses in relation to what he sees [now] and hears about [the past and future]. (27) As a person not serving the modes of nature, one attains through spiritual knowledge, with renunciation developed in yoga fixed on Me and devoted to Me, in this very life the Supersoul within.'
(28) Devahûti said: 'What is unto You the proper concept of devotion that is fit for me and from which I immediately will find liberation at Your feet? (29) What oh embodiment of truth, is the nature of the yoga to perceive the Supreme One you spoke about and with how many divisions is reality understood by it? (30) Please explain this to me whose intelligence is but slow oh my Lord, so that I by Your grace may easily comprehend what is so difficult to understand for a woman.'
(31) Maitreya said: 'Kapila understanding what His mother wanted, born from her body sympathized with her and described thus the truths handed down in disciplic succession of what one calls analytical yoga, a form of yoga which in fact concerns a development of mystical yoga in devotional service. (32) The Fortunate One said: 'The divine of [by one's senses and their ruling divinities] relating to the qualities of matter works in accord with the scriptures when someone in relation to the goodness [the Lord] innerly is not divided. Factually the devotional service free from desires unto the Lord - that is better than the single mastery [of the state of salvation] - is something to which one is naturally inclined. (33) The way food is consumed by the fire of digestion this service quickly dissolves the subtle internal dealings of one's material motivation [the 'subtle body']. (34) Pure devotees who engaged in the service of My lotus feet endeavor to attain Me, never ever desire to be one with Me. They assemble to glorify My personal activities in association. (35) Oh mother, they see My smiling face and eyes as beautiful as the morning sun and speak with Me in favorable terms about the benevolence of My transcendental forms. (36) By those forms who are so charming in all their limbs, exalted pastimes, smiling glances and their words, their minds and senses are captivated because of which unwillingly in their devotion the subtlety of My heaven is secured. (37) As a consequence they do not desire My opulence or the eightfold mastery over the material illusion [the siddhis, see 3.15:45], nor do they follow a desire for the splendor of Supreme Divinity. Those devotees full of bliss about Me as the Supreme One, just enjoy their simple lives. (38) Oh mother, My devotees will never, by no [change of] time or weapon of destruction, lose Me [and My opulence] who was chosen by them as their dearest self, son, friend, preceptor, benefactor and deity. (39-40) That way roaming in both this world and the world of subtle experiences, those who in relation to My embodiment in this world have given up on wealth, cattle, houses and everything else, unflinching in their devotion worship Me, the all-pervading Lord of liberation, because I take them to the beyond of birth and death. (41) No other person or anything else but Me, the Supreme Lord and original ruler over matter and the person, the Soul of all souls, can put an end to the terrible fear [of birth and death]. (42) In fear of Me the wind blows and the sun shines, in fear of Me Indra showers rain and fire burns and in fear of Me death is all around. (43) United in spiritual knowledge and renunciation, yogis free from fear in bhakti yoga take shelter of My feet for the ultimate benefit. (44) The only way for people to find in this world the ultimate perfection of life is to steadily focus their mind in an intensive practice of devotional service to Me.'
Chapter 26: Fundamental Principles of Material Nature
(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'I will now describe to you the different categories of reality, knowing which anyone can be released from the [yoke of the] modes of material nature. (2) I will explain that to you about which one speaks as the spiritual knowledge [the jñâna] that cuts the knots [of egoism] in the heart and constitutes the ultimate truth of one's self-realization. (3) The Supreme Soul, the Original Person is beginningless and is, situated in the beyond of all matter, transcendental to the modes of nature. He can be perceived everywhere as the self-effulgence of the entire creation that is maintained by Him. (4) That very person, the greatest of the great, accepted out of his own free will as His pastime the subtle material energy that is invested with the three modes and relates to the divinity [of Vishnu]. (5) Nature by means of the modes created the variegated forms of the materially living beings. They in this world being confronted with it, were from the first day on illusioned by it because they [those forms] constitute the covering of their spiritual knowledge. (6) Because the living entity identifies himself with the material action that was brought about by the modes of nature and is other than himself, he unjustly considers himself the doer. (7) He because of that bound to a conditioned life thus became dependent, even though he is the naturally joyful and independent witness who does not do anything. (8) The knowers of truth understand that the body and the senses of one's respect are subject to the causation of the material modes of nature and that the spiritual soul above all matter is responsible for the experience of happiness and distress [see also B.G. 13: 21].'
(9) Devahûti said: 'Kindly explain to me the characteristics of the energies and the Original Person [prakriti and purusha] who together constitute the cause of the manifest and unmanifest reality this creation consists of.'
(10) The Supreme Lord said: 'The undifferentiated, eternal reality that differentiated in the form of material nature [prakriti] as a combination of the three modes, this cause belonging to the effect [of this material manifestation], is called the primary nature [the primal ether or pradhâna]. (11) That primary nature is known as the basis from which the five gross and five subtle elements, the ten senses of perception and action and the four internal sense departments [of mind, ego, consciousness and intelligence] evolved who together add up to a number of twenty-four [see also elements]. (12) The five gross elements are to be exact: earth, water, fire, air and ether. Of the subtle elements there are, to My notion, as many. They are the smell and so on [taste, color, touch and sound]. (13) The ten senses are the organs of [perception of] hearing, touching, seeing, tasting and smelling, with the [organs of action known as the] mouth, the hands, the legs, the genitals and the organs of excretion as the tenth. (14) Mind, intelligence, ego and consciousness are the four aspects of the internal, subtle sense one distinguishes when one pays attention to the different characteristics of the [brain] functions. (15) Thus are with the classification I provided the material qualities of the Absolute Truth of Brahman summed up [called saguna brahman]. One speaks thereto of time as the twenty-fifth element.
(16) The influence of the Original Personality of God is said to be the time factor that is feared by some who are deluded by the ego of being in contact with the material nature of one's individual existence. (17) The [expanding, accelerating] movement of material nature without her interaction of the modes and their specific qualities oh daughter of Manu, is the [space]time [the fourth dimension] from which we in our world know Him, the Supreme Lord. (18) He who abides within in the form of the original person [purusha] and without in the form of time [the twenty-fifth element], exists by [exhibiting] His potencies as the Lord of All Opulence [Bhagavân, the Fortunate One] for all living entities [and elements]. (19) She [material nature] whose equilibrium of the modes was agitated by the grace, the divine ordinance, of the Supreme Person who impregnated her womb with His semen, His internal potency, delivers the sum total of the cosmic intelligence [the mahat-tattva] of Brahmâ's effulgent golden reality [known as hiranmaya]. (20) The universe which contains this unchangeable root cause of the cosmic manifestation within itself, swallowed by its own effulgence the dense darkness of the Self in its primordial slumber. (21) The mode of goodness, which is the clear and sober position of understanding the Supreme Lord, is known by the name of Vâsudeva; it is the consciousness that constitutes the nature of the intellect [see also S.B. 1.2: 23]. (22) The characteristic traits of one's [reason in this state of Krishna or natural time] consciousness thus are similar to those of the natural state of pure water: clarity, invariability and serenity.
(23-24) From the complete reality [of the mahat-tattva] that undergoes changes brought about by the Supreme Lord His energies, the in five divided elements, the material ego [or I-awareness] and the therefrom generated mind in combination with the different senses of action and perception sprang up. Moved by that active potency of the Lord the ego manifested itself in the three forms of goodness, passion and ignorance. (25) All of that ego consisting of the elements, senses and mind is in person the Supreme Personality of Ananta with His thousands of heads [Vishnu's snake-bed] who is known by the name of Sankarshana [and also as the Supreme Lord's first plenary expansion]. (26) The false ego, the materially identified self, can thus [according to the three gunas] be characterized as being the one acting, the instrument that is handled [the body] as also the effect of the actions [or that what was realized]. One may in that context also speak of the ego as being serene, active or dull. (27) With the transformation [of the ego in three false forms] from its emotions [in goodness] the principle of mind evolved that with its thoughts and reflections gives rise to desires. (28) The name of that principle is Aniruddha, He who [as the personal expansion of the mind of Vâsudeva] is known as the supreme ruler of the senses. He is bluish like a lotus in autumn and is only gradually realized by the yogis. (29) From the brilliance of the light of the transformation arose the principle of intelligence [the primal expansion of the Lord named Pradyumna] oh virtuous lady, in order to assist in sensually ascertaining the objects that can be perceived [see also S.B. 1.5: 37]. (30) Doubt, misapprehension, correct apprehension, memory and sleep are thus said to be the different characteristics of the functions of intelligence.
(31) From the forceful action of the ego we have the senses for arriving at actions and the acquiring of knowledge according to the active powers of respectively the vital energy and the intelligence. (32) Impelled by the potency of the Supreme Lord from the ignorance of the ego in transformation the subtle element of sound was manifested. Then from the ether the sense of hearing to catch the sounds rose. (33) Persons of learning define sound as that which is indicative of an object, as that which betrays the presence of a speaker [who remembered no longer might be present] and as that which characterizes the subtle element of the sky [the ether]. (34) As for its action and characteristics the ether is described as the element internally and externally giving room to the living beings and as the field of activities of the vital air [prana], the senses and the mind. (35) From the ether evolving from the subtlety of sound the evolution of the subtle element of touch takes place under the transforming impulse of time and thus the air is found as also the sense organ for it and of that sense of touch the active perception. (36) Softness and hardness as well as cold and heat are of this subtle element of touch the distinguished attributes in the sensual experience of the air. (37) By the different characteristics of the air in action, which moves and mixes, brings close and transports particles [of dust] and waves of sound, the other senses are stimulated to function properly. (38) As arranged by fate from the element of the air and the subtle element of touch the form [one has] evolved in which with fire the sense of sight arose for perceiving color and form.
(39) Oh virtuous one, the characteristics of the form element are the dimension, the quality and the individuality of an object. For fire this is the effulgence. (40) The functions of fire consist of illumining, digesting, heating, evaporating, to give rise to hunger and thirst and to serve with food and drink. (41) From the form element that under divine ordinance transforms under the influence of fire the element of taste manifested from which with the water the tongue appeared that perceives the taste. (42) Even though taste is one, it is in contact with all the different substances divided into the sensations of the astringent, sweet, bitter, pungent [salt] and sour. (43) The typicality of water is to be moistening, coagulating, quenching, life-sustaining, refreshing, softening, cooling and to be available in abundance. (44) Because of the transformations of the element of taste in relation to the water, by superior arrangement finding earth, the measure of odor manifested so as to smell the aromas. (45) The oneness of odor is, depending the proportions of the substances, divided in the separate realizations of odors being mixed, offensive, fragrant, mild, strong, acidic and so on. (46) The characteristic function of the earth is to be modeled into forms of the Supreme Brahman with places of residence, pots to contain substances etc. that constitute the place for the presence of anything that can be separated in space. (47) The sense that has the distinctive character of the sky [sound] as its object is called the auditory sense and that sense which has the different features of the air [touch] as its object of perception is known as the tactile sense. (48) The sense which has as its object that what is distinguished by fire [viz. form] is called the sense of sight, the specific perception of the characteristics of water is known as the sense of taste and the perception of that what characterizes earth is called the sense of smell.
(49) In the characteristics of the effect of something the characteristics of the cause can be recognized. Hence one can retrace in the earth element only [being the element created last] the peculiarities of all the preceding elements. (50) When [in the beginning of creation] the seven primary elements [the five material elements, ego and cosmic intelligence - the mahat-tattva] were not yet mixed, [the Lord,] the origin of creation endowed with kâla, karma and guna [time, workload and the modes] entered the universe. (51) Next were by Him [in the form of time] these seven elements roused into activity and united in an egg-shape in an unconscious state. From that egg the celebrated Cosmic Being [or the original 'gigantic' person, the virâth purusha] manifested. (52) This egg is called vis'esha ['the differentiated reality']. It is the outer form of Lord Hari, the Supreme Personality extending as the planetary systems [see S.B. 2.1: 24-37] that consist of successive layers of water and the other elements, each ten times thicker than the previous one. On the outside they are enveloped by pradhâna, the unevolved state of matter [the primal ether]. (53) From the golden [sunshine of the] universal egg arose, from within the waters that He pervaded and was lying in, the greatness of God [Mahâdeva] divided in many cells [kham, ethereal apertures in control of the light]. (54) The first to appear from Him was a mouth with next the organ of speech. Thereafter the divinity of fire [Vahni, the godhead ruling the fire of digestion] also appeared which was followed by the nostrils and the olfactory sense and life breath [prâna] belonging to them. (55) From the olfactory sense the divinity of the wind [Vâyu] appeared, then from the sense of sight of the two eyes the divinity of the sun [Sûrya] manifested and from the auditory sense of the two ears [next] the divinity that rules the directions appeared. (56) Then the skin appeared of the universal form with its hair growth and such, whereupon the curative herbs appeared followed by the sexual organs. (57) From them there was semen and the manifestation of the divinity of the waters. Also an anus appeared and from that anus the capacity to evacuate. Then [the god of] death appeared who causes fear throughout the world. (58) Also two hands manifested together with the power they have and thereafter Lord Indra [the sovereignty] appeared. From the manifestation of the two legs the onward movement manifested itself with next the appearance of the Lord [Lord Vishnu who rules them]. (59-60) The veins of the universal form manifested themselves together with the blood produced with them. Therewith the rivers appeared as also a stomach with which hunger and thirst are found. After their appearance the ocean and the heart of the universal form manifested. Then from the heart the mind appeared. (61) From the mind the moon [Candra] came into view and therefrom intelligence manifested itself. From that intelligence the Lord of speech [Brahmâ] manifested. False ego identifying itself with matter then led to the appearance of Rudra [S'iva], reason and the divinity ruling reason.
(62) All these divinities who thus found their existence were not at all capable of awakening the Original Person and thus they one after the other returned to the source from which they generated, in order to awaken Him. (63) The god of the fire of digestion went back to the mouth, but failed to bring Him to life. The god of the wind returned to the olfactory sense of the nostrils but could not awaken the Original One. (64) The divinity of light going for His two eyes could not make the Authentic One rise and with the divinity of orienting by the auditory sense on His two ears, the Greatness of the Person was not brought to life either. (65) The divinity of the skin could, with its growth and blessing of herbs, not wake up the Celebrated Person, nor could the divinity of water with the procreation performed by the organs of reproduction rouse the Great Person. (66) With the capacity to defecate the god of death could by approaching His anus not stir the Cosmic One into action and not even the two hands of Lord Indra with their power of control could find a way to awaken the Master of Rule. (67) Viṣṇu with the power of progress entering His two feet was not capable of making the Greatness of the Complete move into action and the divine flow of the river returning to His vessels with the blood and power of circulation neither was able to move the Celebrated Person. (68) The ocean that followed along with hunger and thirst, going to His abdomen could not raise the Gigantic Person and the heart with the mind according to the divinity of the moon also failed to awaken the One and Only Gigantic Person. (69) Also Brahmā who entered His heart with intelligence did not make the Celebrated Person stand up, nor could the complete of the Puruṣa be awakened by Lord Śiva sending the ego to His heart. (70) But, the very moment the divinity ruling consciousness with reason entered the heart as the knower of the field, the Cosmic Being rose from the causal waters. (71) It is like with a man asleep whose vital air, working and knowing senses, mind and understanding out of their own cannot wake him up without Him being present. (72) Therefore someone who practices yoga should conscientiously, with the help of spiritual knowledge, detachment and devotion, consider the thought of Him, the Supersoul as being present within.'
Chapter 27: Liberation from Falsehood
(1) The Supreme Lord [as Kapila] said: 'Even though the living entity abides in a material body, he is not affected by the modes of nature when he does not claim proprietorship and thus is not subject to change, just like the sun that is not affected by being reflected in water. (2) But when this very living entity is absorbed in false ego and thus is possessed by the modes of material nature, the individual soul is bewildered and thinks: 'I am the doer'. (3) Because of the faulty actions resulting from dealing with material nature in such a way, he thus in discontent helplessly undergoes the repeated occurrence of birth and death in being born from different wombs [or species] depending the good or bad life he led or a combination of these. (4) Like having landed in a nightmare in which the things happening do not really exist, there is for the living entity who [only] contemplates what occurs to his senses no end to his materially conditioned existence [of illusion]. (5) Therefore the mind of attachment to material pleasure must consequently without attachment gradually be brought under control on the path of bhakti yoga. (6) Beginning with yama [meaning the great vow of yoga of nonviolence, truth, non-stealing, celibacy and non-possessiveness in the practice of detachment], practice the different forms of yoga and develop, endowed with faith, by listening to My stories unalloyed devotion unto Me. (7) Be therein without enmity and regard all living beings as equal, do not entertain intimate relations and be celibate *, be silent and offer the results of your labor. (8) Be satisfied with whatever comes of its own, eat little and live thoughtfully in a secluded place and be peaceful, kind, compassionate and self-realized. (9) Do not follow the physical concept of life in relating to others and your own body but rather see, through spiritual knowledge, the factual truth of [both] the material and the personal aspect. (10) Transcend the stages of consciousness [of waking, dreaming and deep sleep] and stay away from other conceptions of life. Thus with a purified intellect see the true self, the soul of your realization inside, alike the sun before your eyes [outside]. (11) Arrive at the realization of the transcendental Support of the Material Cause [the Supreme Soul] that is manifest as a reflection within the untrue, as an eye for the illusory of matter that penetrated everything as one without a second. (12) It is like the sun in the sky that above water is seen as a reflection on that water or on a wall. (13) Thus the truth of the self is revealed by its reflections in the threefold of the materially identified ego consisting of body, senses and mind. (14) Someone who in this material world falsely unites with the material elements, the objects of enjoyment, the material senses, the mind, intelligence and so on, is situated in sleep, but awakened [in the devotion of yoga] he is freed from false ego. (15) Even though he is not lost, someone [who awakens] unjustly [at first] thinks that he is lost because he, just like someone upset because of losing his fortune, as the silent witness realizes the demise of his false ego. (16) Coming to understand this, knowing the situation he accepted under the false ego, such a person realizes the mercy of the original position of his true self, his original individuality [svarûpa].'
(17) Devahûti said: 'Dear brahmin, is it not so that material nature never releases the soul because the two are eternally attracted to each other oh Best One? (18) As there is no separate existence of aroma and earth or of water and taste, so it is also with intelligence and consciousness. (19) How then can there be the soul free from material nature? For the soul as a non-doer existing with those modes, is bound to the karma associated with them. (20) The great fear one sometimes may avoid by contemplating the fundamental principles, will reappear because the cause [the gunas] continued to be.'
(21) The Supreme Lord said: '[One will realize the freedom,] when one with a pure mind serious unto Me and faithfully listening to My stories in devotional service manages to perform one's duties without desiring the fruits thereof. (22) By means of spiritual knowledge someone, with the vision of the Absolute Truth in yoga strongly being connected in penance, gets detached and firmly fixed in being absorbed in the soul. (23) Bound to its material nature a living entity is day by day consumed, disappearing gradually like firewood on fire. (24) Giving up on the pleasure he tasted [in the material world] because he sees the wrong of the desire to enjoy it always and the harm that dependence gives, he stands in his own glory. (25) The way it is with someone who in his sleep has a dream that brings him many bad things, that same dream with him being awake will not in the least daunt him. (26) The same way someone who is always contented within and fixes his mind upon Me, thus knowing the Absolute Truth, has nothing to fear from material nature. (27) When someone wise thus for many years and many births is engaged in self-realization, he will develop a distaste for anything up to the highest spiritual position [of Satyaloka]. (28-29) Someone devoted to Me who under My protection for the sake of awakening his intelligence, by My unlimited mercy goes for the ultimate goal of his existence of what is called kaivalya [enlightenment, emancipation, beatitude], will in this life attain a steady self-awareness and be free from doubt. The yogi who departed for that heavenly abode will, after leaving behind the subtle as also the gross body, never return. (30) When the attention of the perfected yogi is not drawn towards yogic powers my dear mother, he then, having no other purpose in his life, in his progress towards Me will never be frustrated, because he will not find the power of death therein.'
* : Swami A.C. Bhaktivedanta Prabhupâda in his commentary says here that intimacy refers to intimacy with non-devotees and that celibacy does not exclude a modest sex life: 'Aprasangatah means “not to be in intimate touch with everyone.” A devotee is concerned with his execution of devotional service, and he should therefore mix with devotees only, in order to advance his objective... A devotee should observe the vow of celibacy. Celibacy does not necessitate that one be absolutely free from sex life; satisfaction with one’s wife is permitted also under the vow of celibacy.'
Chapter 28: Kapila's Instructions on the Execution of Devotional Service(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'Oh royal daughter, I will now describe the characteristics of the yoga system, the object of which is to restrain the mind in following the regulative principles and thus filled with joy be successful on the path of the Absolute Truth. (2) One must perform one's duties to the best of one's ability and avoid everything in the way of this. One should be satisfied with that what was achieved by the grace of the Lord and worship the feet of a self-realized soul [a spiritual master]. (3) One should put an end to conventional religious practices and be attracted to religious practices that lead to salvation. Eating little and pure [vegetarian food], one should always live in seclusion and thus dwell in peace. (4) Nonviolent, truthful, free from unrighteous acquisition and not possessing more than one needs, one should in celibacy, austerity and cleanliness studying the Vedas exercise respect for the appearance of the Original Personality. (5) Observing silence and acquiring steadiness in control of yoga postures and one's breath, one should gradually withdraw from the objects of the senses and direct one's mind to the heart. (6) With either fixing one's mind and prâna upon one of the [six] cakras [or energy nodes *] or when one one-pointed focusses one's mind upon the pastimes of [the Lord of] Vaikunthha, one finds oneself absorbed [or in samâdhi]. (7) With these and other methods of yoga engaging one's intelligence and controlling one's breathing the mind that is contaminated by material enjoyment must be gradually subdued. (8) After exercising one's body postures one should do this when one has taken place in a sanctified spot where one sitting in an easy posture keeps one's body erect. (9) For the mind to become steady and free from fluctuations one should clear the passage of the life breath or prâna by inhaling, holding one's breath and exhaling again - or the other way around. (10) The mind of the yogi in such a self-control is soon free from disturbances, just like gold put in fire fanned with air quickly is freed from contaminations. (11) By means of breath control [prânâyâma] one eradicates contaminations, by turning inward [pratyâhâra] material association recedes, by focussing the mind [dhâranâ] sin is overcome and by meditation [dhyâna] one rises above the power of the modes of nature.
(12) When one's thinking by the practice of yoga is purified and controlled, one should looking at the tip of one's nose meditate upon the Supreme Lord's form and measure of time [a mechanical clock or water clock fixed on the sun's summit with the division of time according to the Bhâgavatam]. (13) With His club, conch and discus in His hands, with ruddy eyes resembling the interior of a lotus and a dark complexion like the petals of a blue lotus, He has a cheerful lotuslike countenance. (14) Clad in silk garments as yellow as the filaments of a lotus, He has the mark of S'rîvatsa [a few white hairs] on His chest and wears the brilliant Kaustubha jewel around His neck. (15-16) There is a garland of forest flowers humming with intoxicated bees, a priceless necklace and also bracelets, a crown, armlets, anklets and a girdle of the finest quality around His waist. He who has His seat in the lotus of the heart is most charming to behold, a feast to the eyes with a serenity which gladdens the mind and the heart. (17) He is always very beautiful to see, worshipable for all people of all places, as youthful as a boy and eager to bestow His blessings upon those who serve Him. (18) His fame adding to the repute of the devotees is worth singing. One should meditate on the godhead and all His limbs until one's mind stops wandering. (19) One should visualize the beneficial acts of the beautiful pastimes of Him standing, moving, sitting and lying down or dwelling in the heart. (20) The one contemplating should, when he with his mind fixed on the one form distinguishes all His limbs, in his concentration attend to each and every part of the Lord separately [see also S.B. 2.2: 13]. (21) One should meditate on the lotus feet of the Lord that are adorned with the marks of the thunderbolt, the goad, the banner and the lotus, as also on the prominence of the brilliant red nails with the splendor of the crescent moon which dispel the thick darkness of the heart. (22) One should meditate on the Lord's lotus feet for a long time for the holy water of the Ganges that washed down from His feet blessed Lord S'iva who bore it on his head. They became a thunderbolt that was hurled at the mountain of sin present in the mind of the meditator.
(23) In relation to His knees one should meditate on the Goddess of Fortune, Lakshmî, the lotus-eyed mother of the entire universe that was created by Brahmâ. She who with her caring fingers massages the lower legs of the Almighty Lord transcendental to material existence, is worshiped by all the God-conscious ones. (24) One has to meditate on His two beautiful legs standing on the shoulders of Garuda which, extending down with the luster of the [whitish blue] linseed flower, are the storehouse of all energy. One should also meditate on His round hips in the exquisite yellow cloth that are encircled by the girdle. (25) Next one meditates on the expanse of His navel, which is the foundation of all the worlds situated in His abdomen. From that navel the lotus, the residence of the self-born one [Lord Brahmâ], sprang up containing all the planetary systems. One should meditate on the two most delicate nipples of the Lord that are like emeralds in the whitish light of the pearls from His necklace. (26) The chest of the Lord of Wisdom which is the abode of Mahâ-Lakshmî, bestows on the minds and eyes of persons all the transcendental pleasure. One should also direct one's mind to meditate on the neck of the One who is adored throughout the universe which enhances the beauty of the Kaustubha jewel. (27) On His arms, from which the controllers of the universe originated and of which the ornaments were polished by the revolving of Mount Mandara, one should also meditate, as also on the dazzling luster of the Sudarshana discus [with its thousand spokes] and the swanlike conch in the lotus hand of the Lord. (28) One should remember the Supreme Lord's mace that is named Kaumodakî and is very dear to Him, smeared as it is with the bloodstains of the soldiers of the enemy. And also attention should be paid to the garland humming with the sound of the bumblebees around it and the necklace of pearls about His neck which represents the principle of the pure living entity [see B.G. 7: 7]. (29) One should meditate on the lotuslike countenance of the Supreme Lord who assumed His different forms in this world out of compassion for the devotees and on His glittering alligator-shaped earrings that oscillating crystal clear illumine His prominent nose and His cheeks. (30) Then one should attentively meditate in one's mind's eye the elegance of His face adorned with an abundance of curly hair and His lotus eyes and dancing eyebrows that would put to shame a lotus surrounded by bees and a pair of swimming fish. (31) He who has a heart full of devotion for long should meditate upon the frequent, compassionate glances of His eyes, for these glances that are accompanied by the abundance of His graceful, loving smiles, soothe the three fearful agonies [as caused by oneself, by others and by material nature]. (32) The most benevolent smile of the Lord that dries up the ocean of tears of all persons who in their grief bowed before Him must be meditated as also His arched eyebrows that by His internal, creative potency were manifested to bewilder the god of sexuality for the sake of all sages. (33) Easy to meditate is the generous laughter of His lips that reveals the splendor of His small teeth that are like a row of jasmine buds. With devotion steeped in love for Him fixing one's mind and not wishing to see anyone else, one should meditate upon Him, Lord Vishnu who resides in the core of one's heart.
(34) Because of the pure love one thus through devotion has developed towards Hari, the Supreme Lord, one's heart melts and therefrom one constantly experiences that one's hairs stand on end out of extreme joy and that there is a flow of tears out of intense love. In that state the mind like [a fish] on a hook gradually gives up. (35) The moment the mind is in the liberated position, it immediately turns indifferent and dies away with one's detachment from the sense objects. The person of such a mind at that time like a flame is no longer separated [from the 'big fire' of the Supersoul] and experiences oneness being freed from the flow of the operating modes of nature. (36) When he is situated in his ultimate glory because of the cessation of the mind that responds to material impulses, he on top of that in his position of transcendence above happiness and distress, sees that indeed the cause of pleasure and pain is found in the ignorance of falsely identifying oneself in ego. In that ego he attributed to himself [viz. the control, that] what now is realized by the form and measure of time [the kâshthhâ] of the Supersoul [the localized aspect of the Lord]. (37) As for the body the perfected soul has, because he achieved his predestined real identity [svarûpa], no notion of not continuing physically, or that he would remain or again take birth. Just as it is with someone who blinded by intoxication fails to realize whether he has any clothes on or not. (38) Thus one is faced with the activities one undertook with one's body that by divine ordinance will continue for as long as it takes. One is then because of one's yoga situated in self-absorption, the state of consciousness in which he who awakened to his constitutional position, no longer accepts as his own the body with its sensuality and 'by-products' that was born as in a dream. (39) The way a mortal man is understood as being different from his son and wealth, irrespective his natural inclination for them, the person in his original nature the same way differs from his body, senses, mind and such, [irrespective his identification with them]. (40) Even though a fire through its flames, sparks and smoke is intimately connected with itself, it differs from itself in the way it blazes. (41) The elements, the senses, the mind and the primary nature [see 3.26: 10] of the individual soul even so differ from the seer, who is the Supreme Lord we know as the spiritual complete [Brahman]. (42) The way one with an equal mind sees all creatures as being part of the same natural order one should also see the soul as being present in all manifestations and all manifestations in the soul. (43) The way the oneness of fire manifests itself in different types of wood, so too the one spiritual soul in its position in material nature knows different births under different natural conditions. (44) When one thus has conquered the difficult to comprehend operation of the cause and effect of one's own, God-given material energy, one is situated in the position of self-realization [in one's svarûpa].'
Chapter 29: Explanation of Devotional Service by Lord Kapila
(1-2) Devahûti said: 'Dear master, you described the specific characteristics of the material and personal nature of the complete reality the way they in the analytical philosophy of [Sânkhya] yoga are discussed as being the primary ones. Please elaborate now at length on the path of bhakti yoga that is considered its ultimate purpose. (3) Dear Lord, describe to me and for the people in general, the different ways in which birth and death repeat themselves, for someone may become completely detached by such a description. (4) And yes, what can You say about Eternal Time that represents the eternal and original form of the Supreme Ruler ruling over all the other rulers and under the influence of which the common people act piously? (5) You have appeared as the sun of the yoga system for the sake of the living beings whose intelligence, in their propensity for material actions, is blinded by false ego, [an attachment] because of which they without finding shelter fatigued for a long time slumber in darkness.'
(6) Maitreya said: 'Appreciating the words of His mother oh best of the Kurus, the great and gentle sage satisfied and moved by compassion said the following. (7) The Supreme Lord said: 'Devotion in the discipline of yoga that is so diverse in its appearance, knows many paths oh noble lady, [ways] proving how people follow their own course according to their natural qualities. (8) What one does out of love for Me in violence, pride and envy or being angry from a different point of view, is considered to be in the mode of ignorance. (9) He who in a different spirit worships Me with idols or is after material things, fame and opulence, is in the mode of passion. (10) He who worships Me as distinct from himself or who is of worship with offering the results of his actions or for the sake of transcendence wants to be free from fruitive actions is in goodness. (11-12) Simply hearing about My transcendental qualities continuously will result in a mind moving towards Me, the One residing in the heart of everyone, that flows the way the water of the Ganges flows towards the sea. Such a manifestation of unadulterated devotional yoga - yoga performed without ulterior motives - is devotional service to the Supreme Personality. (13) Without being of My service, pure devotees will not accept it, not even when being offered these, to live on the same planet, to have the same opulence, to be a personal associate, to have the same bodily features or to be joined in oneness [the so-called five forms of liberation of sâlokya, sârshthi, sâmîpya, sârûpya and ekatva or sâyujya]. (14) When one by means of this bhakti yoga - that one calls the highest platform - succeeds in dealing with the three modes of nature the way I explained it, one attains My transcendental nature. (15) When one performs one's duties without attachment to the results one is stronger [in one's yoga] and when one without unnecessary violence [without eating meat e.g.] is regular in the performance of one's yoga exercises one will find happiness. (16) Being in touch with the ritual of seeing, offering respect, doing mantras and being of a positive approach with My [original] form and abode, and thinking of Me as present in all living beings, one lives by the mode of goodness and detachment. (17-19) By means of sense control and proper regulation [yama and niyama, the do's and don'ts of yoga *], being of the greatest respect for the great souls, being compassionate with the poor and by being friendly in association with equals; by hearing about spiritual matters, chanting My holy names, being straightforward, by association with the ones civilized and not entertaining false ego, the consciousness of a person who with these qualities is dutiful towards Me is completely purified. No doubt he by simply hearing about My excellence will reach Me without delay. (20) The way the sense of smell catches the aroma that is carried from its source by means of the air, similarly consciousness catches by means of yoga the Supreme Soul that is unchanging.
(21) A mortal human being who has no respect for Me as the Supersoul always situated in every living being, but nevertheless worships the deity, is just imitating. (22) Someone who in worship of the deity disregards Me as the Supreme Ruler and Supersoul present in all beings, is in his ignorance only offering oblations into the ashes. (23) He who offers Me his respects but is envious with others being present, lives in his campaigning against others in enmity and will never find peace of mind. (24) Oh sinless one, I am certainly not pleased when they who manage to worship Me in My deity form with all paraphernalia, are not of respect for other living beings. (25) One has to worship the idol of Me the Controller and such, for as long as one is of profit minded labor [is building karma] and not of the realization that I reside in one's heart and in the hearts of all. (26) I in the form of death, will create fear in those who with a different perspective on their physical frame discriminate between themselves and other living beings. (27) Therefore one should with charity, respect and in friendship regarding everyone as an equal, propitiate Me, the One abiding in all as the True Self.
(28) Living entities are better than inanimate objects, better than entities with life symptoms oh blessed one, are entities with a developed consciousness and better than those are they who developed their sense perception. (29) Further, those who developed their taste are better than those who [only] developed their sense of touch and better than they are those who developed their sense of smell. Even better are the ones who developed their hearing faculty. (30) Better than those are the ones distinguishing differences of form and those who have teeth in both their jaws are better than these. Those who have many legs are superior to them. Of them the four-legged creatures are the better ones while the two-legged ones [the human beings] are even better. (31) Among human beings a society with four classes is the better one and of those classes the brahmins are the best. Among the brahmins the better one is further he who knows the Vedas and the one who knows its purpose is still better [viz. to know the absolute of the truth in three phases: brahman, paramâtmâ and bhagavân]. (32) The one who puts an end to all doubts is better than he who knows what the purpose of the Vedas is and the brahmin among them who performs his duty is better than him. He who is free from worldly attachment is still better and the one who does not do his righteous duty for himself alone is the best of them all. (33) Therefore I know of no greater being than a person who with a dedicated mind has offered all of his actions, wealth and life without any reservation to Me and with persistence is of service without any other interest. (34) Such a one who regards the Supreme Lord, the Controller of the individual soul, as having entered all the living beings by His expansion in the form of the Supersoul [the Paramâtmâ], thus is mindfully of respect in regard to all. (35) Oh daughter of Manu, someone can achieve the Original Person by following either of these two paths of bhakti and mystic yoga alone that I have described. (36) This [original] form of the Supreme Lord of Brahman [the Supreme Spirit] and Paramâtmâ [the personalized local aspect] is the transcendental, ethereal personality of the primal reality [pradhâna] whose activities are all spiritual.
(37) [Natural] time known as the divine cause of the different manifestations of the living entities, constitutes the reason why all living beings live in fear who motivated by cosmic intelligence and such matters consider themselves as separated. (38) He who from within enters all the living entities, constitutes the support of everyone and annihilates [them again] by means of other living beings, is named Vishnu, the enjoyer of all sacrifices who is that time factor, the master of all masters. (39) There is no one who is specially favored by Him nor is He bound or averse to anyone; He cares for those who are attentive and of persons inattentive He is the destroyer. (40-45) He for whom out of fear the wind blows and this sun is shining, for whom out of fear Indra sends his rains and the heavenly bodies are shining; He because of whom out of fear the trees, creepers and herbs each in their own time bear flowers and produce their fruits; He afraid of whom the rivers flow and the oceans do not overflow, because of whom fire burns and earth with her mountains does not submerge; He because of whom the sky provides air to the ones who breathe and under the control of whom the universe expands its body of the complete reality [mahat-tattva] with its seven layers [**], He for whom out of fear the gods of creation and more in charge of the modes of nature within this world carry out their functions according to the yugas [see 3.11], He of whom afraid all the beings animate and inanimate find their control; that infinite, final operator of beginningless Time is the unchangeable Creator who creates people out of people and puts an end to the rule of death by means of death.'
*: Next to yama, the vow of yoga about what one should not do as mentioned in 3.27: 6, the regulating discipline of what one should do in niyama consists of: inner and outer purity or cleanliness, contentment, penance, study of the scared texts and engaging in activities for the person of God. See also Patañjali's Yoga-sûtras II: 32.
**: The seven kos'as - five ones extended with sometimes two extra - or also seven dvîpas with their levels of consciousness in the field of the physical, vital, psychological, intellectual, blissful, self-aware and the true self.
Chapter 30: Lord Kapila Describes the Adverse Consequences of Fruitive Activities
(1) Kapila said: 'Just like a mass of clouds has no knowledge of the powerful wind, a person has no knowledge of this time factor, even though he is being conditioned by it. (2) Whatever the goods are that one with difficulty acquired for one's happiness are destroyed by the Supreme Lord [in the form of Time] and because of this the person laments. (3) In his ignorance he foolishly thinks that the temporality of having a home, land and wealth for the sake of his body, would be something permanent. (4) The living being finding its satisfaction in this worldly existence, will irrespective the birth that was acquired, be in consonance with it. (5) Even physically living in hell a person, who in truth is deluded by the illusory material potency of God, does not want to give up his hellish pleasures. (6) With his body, wife, children, home, animals, wealth and friendships deeply rooted in his heart, he thinks of himself as being a great success. (7) Burning with anxiety about maintaining all the members of his dear family, he is constantly of sin and with a bad mind acting like a fool. (8) With his heart and senses charmed by a woman he sees in private and by the display of the sweet words of his children, he is of the falsehood of the outer illusion [of non-permanent matters being eternal]. (9) Involved in the household duties of his family life that gives rise to all kinds of trouble, he is busy countering these miseries attentively and thinks that that will make him happy as a householder. (10) By means of the wealth that here and there with violence [and victims] was secured, he maintains his family, but he goes down himself when he for his own maintenance may eat what was left over from the meal. (11) When he time and again ruled by greed [enviously] desires the wealth that is enjoyed by others, he himself gets into trouble in exercising his profession and is thus ruined. (12) No longer capable of maintaining his family the unfortunate wretch bereft of wealth and beauty then sighs with a bewildered intelligence full of grief over everything he tried in vain.
(13) No longer capable of maintaining his wife and so on, he finds himself not respected as before, just as an old ox is not respected the same way by his farmer. (14) Even though he now is maintained by those he once maintained, he does not develop any aversion. He, getting deformed of old age, rather stays at home to await his death. (15) There he remains and eats like a pet dog that what indifferently is placed before him and falls sick with indigestion, eating little and doing little. (16) Because of the inner pressure his eyes bulge out and with his windpipe congested with mucus he coughs and has difficulty breathing, only saying 'ugha ugha'. (17) Lying down surrounded by his lamenting friends and relatives he, unconscious in the grip of the noose of time, cannot speak although it's the time for it. (18) Thus, having engrossed in maintaining his family, he has no control over his mind and senses and dies in great pain, while his relatives cry as he passes away. (19) Witnessing the arrival of the servants of death with their terrible eyes full of wrath he because of the fear in his heart passes stool and urine. (20) They like the king's soldiers immobilize his body by binding him in ropes for his punishment and then drag him like a criminal forcefully by the neck over a long distance. (21) In his heart broken by their threatening presence he, overtaken, trembles on the road and is bitten by dogs in the distress of remembering his sins. (22) Afflicted by hunger, thirst and the radiation of scorching forest fires and winds on hot and sandy roads, he feels how he painfully is beaten on his back with a whip, while he unable to move finds no refuge or water. (23) Falling now and then he gets tired and loses consciousness, and then reawakens on the road of his misery where he quickly is led before the eternal ruler of death [Yamarâja]. (24) He sees his entire life pass by in a few moments [he passes 'ninety-nine thousand yojanas'] and then receives the punishment he deserves. (25) Then with his limbs covered by firewood he is cremated or sometimes sees that he eats his own flesh or that it is done by other creatures. (26) Vividly he then witnesses how dogs pull out his entrails at his last resting place where serpents, scorpions, gnats and so on pester him to his abhorrence. (27) He sees how one by one his limbs come off being seized by big and small animals who tear him apart, throw him from heights or drag him under water or into caves. (28) Because of loose association [not being of a steady sexual relationship] one must, whether one is a man or a woman, undergo the requital in hellish states of anger, self-destruction and bewilderment [tâmisra, andha-tâmisra and raurava and such, see 5.26].
(29) Oh mother, because one can observe [the downside of] these hellish pains here, one speaks of [finding] heaven as well as hell in this world. (30) He who thus [in greed, attachment and infidelity] maintained his family or lived for his stomach only, will upon leaving this world after he died have to face the consequences for himself as also for his family. (31) After quitting this vehicle of time he will enter the darkness all alone and pay the price for the harm that he in the care of his own interest did to others in envy of their fortune. (32) By divine ordinance the man sustaining a family has to undergo the hellish condition that resulted from his foul play, just like someone who lost his wealth. (33) Someone who in his eagerness to care for his family is simply godless in his actions, thus heads for the darkest region of self-destruction [andha-tâmisra]. (34) After he beginning from the lowest position [of an animal existence] prior to a human birth in due order has underwent all the requital and such, he being purified may again return to the human world on this planet.'
Chapter 31: Lord Kapila's Instructions on the Wanderings of the Living Entities
(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'Because of its karma the living entity as ordained by God through the particle of semen of a man enters the womb of a woman in order to dwell there for obtaining a body. (2) On the first night the sperm and ovum mix, at the fifth night there is a bubble and in about ten days it is thereafter like a plum, lump of flesh or an egg. (3) Within a month a head appears and within two months limbs like arms and feet form. The nails, [the beginnings of] hair, bones, skin, reproductive organs and the apertures appear within three months. (4) In about four months the seven ingredients separate [body-fluids and other elements], in five months feelings like hunger and thirst occur and in six months the fetus starts to move around at the right in the amnion [males at the right, females at the left so one says]. (5) From the nutrition taken from the mother the body of the fetus grows as it stays in that impossible hollow whereabout stool and urine form a breeding place for germs. (6) All the time aching for food, it is, being so tender, affected by infestations ['worms'] and thus all over its body has to suffer a great deal residing there, moment after moment lapsing into unconsciousness. (7) The living being because of the excessive bitterness, heat, pungency, saltiness, dryness, the sourness etc. of the food taken by the mother, is affected in every limb and thus feels pain. (8) Enclosed by the amnion in that place surrounded by the intestines it lies with a bent neck and back arched with its head in its belly. (9) Like a bird in a cage with no freedom of movement, it [the soul] still remembers - when it is lucky - what has happened in all its hundreds of births. Remembering such a long history it may sigh over them, for what peace of mind can it then achieve? (10) From the seventh month on it is endowed with consciousness, but at the same time pushed down by the pressure of the womb where it cannot stay, just like the worm stemming from the same belly.
(11) The fearful living entity bound to its seven constituents [nails, skin, fat, flesh, blood, bone, marrow], then in its disgust, with folded hands and words of prayer, appeals to the Lord who placed him in that womb. (12) The human soul says: 'May He protect me who protects the entire universe and who with assuming His different forms walks the earth with His lotus feet. Let me take refuge in that shelter that will take my fears away, in Him who decided that I deserved this untrue condition. (13) I, the pure soul covered by the grossness of matter which consists of the elements, the senses and the mind, have because of my being bound to activities, fallen into this delusional state [mâyâ]. Let me offer my obeisances so that I may hold on to the completely pure Changeless One of unlimited knowledge who resides in the heart of the repentant one. (14) I am, contrary to what it should be, [as a spiritual soul] separated by the covering of this material body that is made of the five elements and based upon senses, material preferences [gunas], interests and cognitions, and so I offer my obeisances to You, the Supreme Person transcendental to material nature and its living entities, whose glories are not obscured by such a material body. (15) By the deluding quality of Your outer appearance this body that by the modes and its karma is bound to wander on the path of repeated birth and death, has to suffer considerably with a spoilt memory. May again this entity realize Your true nature. How else would one find Your divine mercy? (16) What else but Your divinity, that as a partial representation [the Paramâtmâ] dwells in both the animate and the inanimate, would give us the knowledge of the threefold of Time, of past, present and future? In order to be freed from the threefold misery [as caused by oneself, nature and others] we as individual souls engaged on the path of fruitive activities have to surrender to that divinity. (17) Embodied within the abdomen of another body, having fallen into a pool of blood, stool and urine and strongly scorched by gastric fire, this [individual soul with its] body desiring to leave that place, counts his months when it as a miser will be released oh Lord. (18) You granted me, [not even] ten months old oh Lord, [the light of] Your incomparable, supreme mercy. What else can I do but to pray in return with folded hands in gratitude for that incomparable and unique grace of You who are the refuge of the fallen ones? (19) This living being can, from its bondage to the seven layers of matter [3.29: 40-45], only understand what is agreeable and disagreeable, but by You endowed with another body of self-control within myself, I am really able to recognize inside of me You, the original person who constitutes the inner guidance, as residing within my heart as well as outside of me. (20) Oh Almighty One, even though I who has to live with all the miseries outside of this abdomen, rather not depart from here to land in that pitfall, I [just as everyone] who enters this world at once will be captured by Your mâyâ and be entangled in the false identification [of the ego] that is fundamental to the eternal cycle of birth and death. (21) Therefore I will, well-disposed to the soul no longer being agitated, deliver myself quickly again from that darkness, by placing the feet of Lord Vishnu in my heart and thus spare me this fate of having to enter so many wombs.'
(22) Kapila said: 'Thus desiring from within the womb, the [almost] ten months old living entity extols the Lord at the time of being pushed downwards by the pressure of labor to take birth. (23) Because of that pressure the child with its head turned downwards suddenly, with great difficulty and bereft of all memory, comes out breathless. (24) Like a worm falling down to earth it smeared with blood moves its limbs and cries loudly now it has lost the wisdom in reaching the opposite [material] position. (25) Being maintained by its folks who do not understand what it wants it, not being able to refuse, has fallen into circumstances it did not desire. (26) Laying down in fouled linen [dirty diapers etc.] the child is pestered by germs [suffering rashes on its body] it cannot scratch away from its limbs, for it is not able to sit, stand or move around. (27) Flies, mosquitos, bugs and other creatures bite the baby its tender skin and being just like vermin pestered by other vermin, it, deprived of wisdom, cries. (28) This way undergoing infancy in distress and even in its childhood out of its ignorance not achieving what it wants, it gets angry and sad. (29) As a lusty person being destructive towards other lusty people it with the pride of its developing body, because of that anger, then develops enmity at the cost of the soul. (30) The embodied soul in ignorance holding on to non-permanent things then constantly reasons from the physical reality made of the five elements and thus thinks foolishly in terms of 'I' and 'mine'. (31) Engaged in actions in the service of the body he because of his bondage to the dark motives of fruitive labor is followed by trouble [consisting of the so-called kles'as] and time and again moves in the direction of yet another birth in the material world. (32) When he on the materialistic path again [only] is interested in human association for the sake of the pleasure of his genitals and his stomach, the living entity lands in darkness as before. (33) For associated thus he loses his sense of truth, purity, compassion and gravity, his spiritual intelligence, prosperity, modesty and his good name, as also his mercy, the control over his mind and senses and his fortune. (34) One should not seek association with coarse and immoral fools bereft of self-realization who like pitiable dogs dance to the tune of the ladies. (35) Nothing in the world makes a man as infatuated and dependent as the association with a man who is attached to women or with a fellowship of men fond of women. (36) The father of man [Brahmâ] bewildered at the sight of his own daughter as a stag shamelessly ran after her when he saw her in the form of a deer [compare 3.12: 28]. (37) Except for sage Nârâyana, among all the living entities born from Brahmâ there is not a single man whose intelligence is not distracted by mâyâ in the form of a woman.
(38) Behold the strength of My mâyâ in the shape of a woman that even makes the conquerors of the world follow her closely behind by the mere movement of an eyebrow. (39) One who aspires to reach the culmination of yoga should never develop worldly attachment to a [young, attractive] woman; they say that to someone who arrived at self-realization in My service, thus associating with her is the gateway to hell. (40) The woman created by God is as an overgrown well [one falls into when one is inattentive], she represents the slowly encroaching mâyâ, the illusory power of the material world which one must regard as death to the soul. (41) She who from being attached to women [in his previous life] became a woman, due to illusion in regard of My mâyâ thinks that aiming at the form of a man [her husband] will bring her wealth, progeny and a house. (42) She [in her turn] should consider His mâyâ consisting of her husband, children and house, as death brought about by the authority of God alike the call of a hunter [*]. (43) Because the person incessantly delights in working for the fruit of his actions, the embodied individual soul wanders from one world to the other. (44) Thus he gets a suitable body composed of the material elements, the senses and the mind. When that comes to an end it is called death but when it manifests one speaks of birth. (45-46) When one [staring in meditation] cannot perceive the fixed position of an object that implies the death of one's sense perception, and when one regards the body as being oneself that implies one's birth [in a material sense]. He who perceives cannot at the same time regard an object as well as the witness of the perception himself, just as the eyes are not capable either to see at once all the different parts of a single object. (47) One must not be horrified about death, one must not stingily cherish poverty nor be concerned about any material gain; when one understands the true nature of the living being one should on this planet move about steadfast and free from attachment. (48) When one relegates one's body to this world composed of mâyâ one should, endowed with the right vision, move around therein in detachment basing oneself upon reason in being connected in the science of the [three forms of] yoga.'
*: Compare this passage to the verse in the Bhakti-rasâmrita-sindhu 1.2: 255 that allows association of the sexes in a devotional setting: 'Man and woman should live together as householders relating to Krishna, only for the purpose of discharging duties in the service of Krishna. Engage the children, engage the wife and engage the husband, all in Krishna conscious duties, and then all these bodily or material attachments will disappear. Since the mediating medium is Krishna, the consciousness is pure, and there is no possibility of degradation at any time.' (Rûpa Gosvâmî in: Bhakti-rasâmrita-sindhu 1.2: 255.)
Chapter 32: The Entanglement in Fruitive Activities
(1) Kapila said: 'Well then, the person living at home doing the duties of a householder, enjoys again and again the advantages of sense gratification, economic benefits and religious activities. (2) Moreover he in his faithful worship of the gods and the forefathers with sacrificial ceremonies [called pravritti-dharma], infatuated by lust has turned his face away from emancipating in devotional service to the Supreme Lord [for the sake of what one calls nivritti-dharma]. (3) Overcome by a mind of belief being vowed to those forefathers and demigods, the person who thus by drinking soma [a beverage drunk by the sacrificing brahmin] left this world in respect of the lunar order [of his sacrifices], will again return [see also B.G. 8: 25]. (4) When Lord Hari lies Himself down on the snake bed of Ananta S'esha those worlds of the attached householders find their end. (5) Those intelligent ones [though] who in the performance of their personal duties did not take advantage for the sake of sense gratification and material benefits, but rather free from material attachment gave up on their fruitive activities, will find the perfection of peace because their consciousness was purified. (6) When one without fail [in nivritti-dharma] is righteously engaged for the sake of the detachment of forsaking claims of property and egoism, one is in the performance of one's personal duties completely purified by the goodness of consciousness. (7) By following the path of enlightenment they approach the Original Personality of God, the cause of the manifestation and dissolution of the world who is reflected in the faces of all as the Controller of the spiritual and material worlds. (8) Until the end of the long time period of two parârdhas in which the life of Brahmâ himself finds its conclusion [see 3.11], they dwell in the transcendental world immersed in thoughts about the Supreme One. (9) After having experienced for the time of two parârdhas the natural self [of creation] consisting of the three modes, the Lord of the Beyond [Brahmâ] desiring to dissolve the material covering composed of earth, water, fire, ether, mind, senses, objects, ego and so on, at that time enters the changeless spiritual sky. (10) The yogis who did not forsake the responsibility for their bodies in controlling their breath and mind, after having spent such a long period of time with Lord Brahmâ, enter thus detached together with him the Original Person, the embodiment of happiness who is the oldest, primary reality of the spirit. (11) Dear mother, therefore take by devotional service to the shelter of Him you now heard about, He who resides in each his lotus heart. (12-15) [But remember that] even Brahmâ, the Creator of the mobile and immobile manifestations who is the source of Vedic wisdom, as also the sages and the masters of yoga, the Kumâras and the other perfected ones and original thinkers of yoga who attained the original Person of the Absolute Truth, the first one of all the souls, by dint of their detached, egoless actions, despite their independent vision and all their spiritual qualities, again take birth to assume their positions when this manifestation of the Lord is recreated through the operation of time and the three modes. And that is also true for all others who enjoyed the divine opulence that resulted from their pious deeds, they also return when the interaction of the modes again takes place.
(16) They whose minds in this world are addicted to fruitive activities engage with conviction in their prescribed duties in attachment to the result of their labor and do that time and again. (17) Fully engaged in their households they engage in the worship of their forefathers and, being driven by passion, have minds that aspiring for gratification are full of anxieties and senses they cannot control. (18) Those [trai-vargika] persons dedicated to the three civil virtues [of economy, sense gratification and religious service] are not interested in the pastimes of Lord Hari, the killer of the demon Madhu, whose transcendental excellence is so worthy of being described. (19) Having given up on the nectar of the stories about the Infallible One, they repelled by God rather listen to the stories of materialism, and in that respect they are just like stool eating hogs.
(20) When the sun goes through the south, they after their cremation along with their families again take birth in the world of their forefathers in order to perform their fruitive activities to the [bitter] end [compare B.G. 8: 25]. (21) When they have exhausted the merit of their pious deeds, they directly by divine arrangement fall down from their elevated position to return to this planet, oh virtuous one [compare B.G. 9: 21].
(22) Worship therefore with all your heart the Supreme One of your refuge by whose feet devotional service is connected with good qualities. (23) The discharge of devotional service unto Vâsudeva the Supreme Personality of Godhead, will very soon result in the detachment and spiritual knowledge that lead to self-realization. (24) When the mind of the devotee in every circumstance is equipoised to the activity of the senses, it thus makes no distinction between like and dislike. (25) He who then because of the detached mindfulness of his soul is of an equal vision, is free from likes and dislikes and sees himself elevated to the transcendental position. (26) Even though the Supreme Personality constitutes the unique completeness of transcendental knowledge, He in philosophical research and other processes of understanding is differently perceived as the Spirit of the Absolute [Brahman], the Supersoul [Paramâtmâ] and the Lord personally present [Bhagavân, see also S.B. 1.2: 11]. (27) The only purpose for a yogi to realize in this world is to achieve by the practice of yoga complete detachment from everything. (28) For someone averse to the knowledge of spirituality the Absolute Truth beyond the modes appears as a relativity of forms that can be perceived through the senses [but is] misconceived in all kinds of [speculative] considerations. (29) [But] just as from the mahat-tattva with the three modes and the five elements, the material body of the living entity was formed with its individual consciousness, eleven senses [the five senses of action and perception, including the mind] and false ego, also the universe was formed out of the cosmic egg of all universes [and may thus be concluded that no essential difference exists between the local covering of the individual soul and the gigantic universal covering of the Supersoul; or briefly stated, that the universe must be seen as a person]. (30) With faith and devotion ever being steadfast in yoga he understands this whose mind is fixed in the detachment of disassociating oneself from material involvement.
(31) Thus My respectful mother, I have described this spiritual knowledge that reveals the vision of the Absolute Truth by which the reality of the material and personal aspect [prakriti and purusha] is understood. (32) By means of both jñâna-yoga [the yoga of spiritual knowledge] and the freedom from the modes that is directed towards Me and is called bhakti, - rather than by each of them alone - the purpose is achieved that is denoted by the word Bhagavân. (33) Just as one and the same object having many qualities is differently perceived by the senses, similarly the one and only Lord of All Fortune is seen differently depending the different paths described in the scriptures. (34-36) Through material actions, sacrifices, charity, austerities, study of the scriptures, philosophical research, subduing the mind and senses, as also through renunciation and forsaking profit-minded labor, practicing the different types of yoga, doing devotional service and fulfilling one's individual duties - in case of an active life as also a contemplative life [pravritti- and nivritti-dharma] -, one will with consequent detachment and knowledge of the science of self-realization, perceive the Supreme Lord in His true nature: as being present in the material world as also in transcendence [saguna and nirguna]. (37) I explained to you the four divisions of identity [svarûpa] in devotional service [in combination with the modes and their transcendence *], as also the imperceptible action of time [the conditioning] that drives the living entities. (38) For the living entity My dear mother, there are many ways of engaging in material action in ignorance [about one's original identity]. They are all the result of working for a material outcome [karma], and he who gets entangled in it has therefore lost his way.
(39) This what I said is not meant for instructing the wicked ones and the ones of bad conduct, nor to be told to obstinate and offensive people or to anyone who only in name does his duty. (40) One must not tell this to greedy persons and neither to someone attached to hearth and home, nor to those who are not devoted to Me or detest My devotees. (41) It is meant for the faithful, the devotees, the respectful, those not spiteful towards anyone, the friendly eager to render their services conscientiously. (42) Tell this to those who with a peaceful mind developed detachment for what's outside of them, to those who are not envious, who are clean and to whom I am the dearest of the dear. (43) Oh mother, he who but once with faith heard about this or repeats this for himself in being fixed on Me [doing japa], will certainly attain My heaven.'
* The four identities with the modes and their transcendence are known as the game of order the human being plays in his identifications of according to the four classes [varna], four statuses [âs'rama], the three modes [guna] and the eight levels of transcendence [ashthânga] functioning with a certain degree of experience.
Chapter 33: The Renunciation of Devahûti
(1) Maitreya said: 'After the dear wife of Kardama, the mother named Devahûti, thus had listened to the words of Lord Kapila, she, being freed from the veil of ignorance and having offered Him her obeisances, recited prayers to the author in the matter of the fundamental [Sânkhya-yoga] truths that constitute the foundation of liberation. (2) Devahûti said: 'One says that the Unborn One [Brahmâ] who was born from the lotus flower [sprouting] from Your abdomen, meditated upon Your body lying in the water that is the source of the stream of the modes of nature and the seed pervading all that is manifest of the material elements, the senses, the sense-objects and the mind. (3) As that single person of the universe who through the interaction of the modes divided the creation and all of that, You stand firm on the basis of Your heroism. You thereto with distinguishing Yourself as the infallible non-doer make the difference as the Lord of all living beings whose thousands of energies are inconceivable. (4) How can it be that You as that same person took birth from my abdomen oh my Lord, You whose powers are inconceivable and in whose belly this universe has its place, oh You who as a baby licking Your toe all alone lay Yourself down on the leaf of a banyan tree at the end of the millennium? (5) You have assumed this body to counter sinful activities oh my Lord and provide instructions for devotional service. Just as with Your incarnations as the boar incarnation and others, You are there also as this one in order to reveal the path of self-realization. (6) With You even someone of the lowest birth is at any moment with hearing the chanting of Your name, offering obeisances to You or even by simply remembering You, immediately enabled to perform the Vedic rituals, and how would it be if they would see You face to face oh Fortunate One! (7) Oh how blessed and hence worshipable is he who has Your holy name on his tongue, even when he's but cooking for himself alone. For Your sake the ones of spiritual education [the Aryans] who studied the Vedas and have accepted Your holy name, perform austerities, execute fire sacrifices and take a bath in the sacred rivers. (8) I offer You my obeisances, You the Highest Spirit, the Supreme Personality, Lord Vishnu carrying the name of Kapila, He who is the source of the Vedas, to whom I turned inwards to listen, whom I perceived in my mind, meditated upon and by whose potency the influence of the modes vanished.'
(9) Maitreya said: 'The Supreme Lord carrying the name of Kapila thus being praised full of love for His mother replied with words of gravity. (10) Lord Kapila said: 'By following this easy to execute path I instructed to you My dear mother, you very soon will attain the supreme goal. (11) You may rest assured that with this instruction of Mine that is followed by the transcendentalists, you shall reach Me free from fear, while [the cycle of birth and] death is what is attained by the ones not conversant with this.'
(12) Maitreya said: 'After this instruction the venerable Supreme Lord of the path of self-realization, Kapila, the teacher of the Absolute Truth took permission from His mother and left. (13) The way her son had told her in His instruction on yoga, she in that abode [Kardama's palace], that with its wealth of flowers was the jewel of the Sarasvatî river, fixed her attention to be connected in the science of uniting consciousness. (14) As she bathed regularly, her curly matted hair turned gray and her body, clad in old garments, got thin because of the severe austerities. (15) By the austerity of his yoga Kardama Muni, the progenitor of mankind, had developed his unequaled home with all its paraphernalia, which was even envied by the denizens of heaven. (16) The ivory beds white as the foam of milk had gold filigree covers and the chairs and benches were made of gold and had cushions soft to the touch. (17) The walls were of pure marble inlaid with valuable emeralds and lamps shone with the same jewels the women decorated themselves with. (18) The garden of the house was beautiful with its flowers and fruits, many trees with pairs of singing birds and the humming of intoxicated bees. (19) When she entered the pond fragrant with lotuses, the heavenly associates sang to her about the great care of Kardama.
(20) [But] leaving that most desirable garden that was even envied by the wives of Indra, she had a sorry look on her face because she was afflicted by her being separated from her son. (21) With her husband having left for the forest and her son separated from her she, despite the truth she knew, became as sad as a caring cow that lost her calf. (22) Meditating upon Him, her divine son Lord Kapiladeva, she very soon oh dear Vidura, became detached from her fine home. (23) Meditating upon the form of the Supreme Lord the way He instructed it, she kept as her object of meditation the complete and the parts of the smiling face of her son in mind. (24-25) By performing her duties the proper way on the basis of the knowledge of the Absolute Truth, she was continuously engaged in devotional service and very strong in renunciation. Spiritually purified in meditation upon the Great Soul whose face is seen everywhere, she then saw how in her self-realization the symptoms of the modes of nature disappeared. (26) With her mind situated in Brahman and engaged in serving the Supreme Lord who resides in all living beings, the material pangs of the unfortunate condition of her soul disappeared and she attained transcendental bliss. (27) Situated in the eternal state of absorption she being freed from the modes no longer was reminded of her material body, just as someone who awakened forgets what he saw in a dream. (28) Her body was maintained by others [by her heavenly maidens] but because she suffered no fears she didn't lose weight; with the impurities [of her luxury] she shone just like a fire covered by smoke. (29) With her body engaged in the austerity of yoga she under divine protection being absorbed in thoughts about Vâsudeva, lost the awareness of her hair hanging loose or her clothes being in disarray. (30) She thus following the path as instructed by Kapila, soon without fail in the spirit of the Absolute Truth of the Supreme Soul achieved the cessation of her material existence and the [abode of the] Supreme Lord.
(31) That most sacred place where she attained perfection oh brave one, was known in the three worlds under the name of Siddhapada [the refuge of perfection]. (32) The material elements of her mortal body that was relinquished by the practice of yoga became a river that is the foremost of all rivers oh gentle one, sought by all who desire perfection for conferring that fulfillment. (33) When Lord Kapila, the great yogi and Supreme Lord, after taking leave of His mother left the hermitage of His father, He headed in the northeastern direction. (34) He was extolled by the Siddhas, the Cânaras, the Gandharvas, munis and Apsaras, and the ocean offered Him oblations and a place to stay *. (35) There being worshiped by the teachers of example who practice the Sânkhya yoga system, He remains permanently in samâdhi to ensure the deliverance of [all the souls in] the three worlds. (36) Dear sinless one, this what I upon your request told you about Kapila and His conversation with Devahûti, purifies [the one who hears about it]. (37) Whoever listens to or expounds on these confidential teachings of Kapila Muni about the union of the soul and thus has set his mind to the Fortunate One who carries the banner of Garuda, will attain the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord.'
*: Known and still worshiped today as Gangâ-sâgara-tîrtha, the place where the Ganges joins the ocean.
Thus the third Canto of the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam ends named: The Status Quo.
Translation: Anand Aadhar Prabhu, http: //bhagavata.org/c/8/AnandAadhar.html
Production: the Filognostic Association of The Order of Time, with special thanks to Sakhya Devi Dasi for proofreading and correcting the manuscript. http: //theorderoftime.com/info/guests-friends.html
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